The One Hundred Year History of Hanover, Kansas

From "Hanover Centennial -- 1869-1969"

    "The little town of Hanover, Kansas, was just a little bit of Germany, transplanted to American soil"; so wrote Mrs. E. N. Emmons, widow of the editor and publisher of the first fore-runner of The Hanover News. And, indeed, so it was. Mrs. Emmons, although not German, herself, yet appreciated the sterling qualities of these early settlers whom, during her short stay here, she learned to respect and to love.
    One of the most noted of these German settlers was Gerat Henry Hollenberg, founder of both Hanover and Hollenberg, and frequently referred to as "The Father of Washington County".
    G. H. Hollenberg, the first settler in Hanover Township, came to Washington County in the fall of 1858, settling on the old Fort Kearney Road at a point which he first named "Cottonwood Ranch", where he established a stage depot, made his home and kept a small stock of groceries and general merchandise such as might be needed by travelers along the stage coach route.
    He also obtained an appointment for his clerk, George Perkins, and established a postoffice at this point, continuing there during the time of immense travel and transportation to California and the mountains by overland stages and freighting trains.
    It was near this point that the road crossed the Little Blue on the trail from Marysville, thence to the Big Blue, from there following the valley to near Ft. Kearney. Mr. Hollenberg had his ranch here during the raids by Indians on travelers and ranchmen in the valley.
    At this time, he was a Colonel of a Regiment of State Militia and was frequently called upon to lead an expedition against marauding parties of Indians. It was in August of 1864 that perhaps the most brutal of these raids took place. A party of Cheyennes and Arapahoes who were waging war on the whites in western Kansas and Colorado, extended their raids into the valley of the Little Blue, near a place called Oak Grove, six miles above where Hanover now stands. A family named Eubanks, ten in number, were murdered and scalped; a man named Kelly was killed at Pawnee Station; Patrick Burk and a man named Butler were killed three miles above Oak Grove and two other men were killed and a young lady named Laura Roper was carried into captivity. Col. Hollenberg and his Regiment of State Militia chased the raiding parties out of the state, toward the head of the Republican River.
    G. H. Hollenberg had come to Kansas in the spring of 1854, first settling on the Black Vermillion in Marshall County at a place later called Bigelow Station. It was here that he met and married Miss Sophia Brockmeyer who became his wife on May 15, 1858. In the fall of that same year, they came to Washington County and built their home, which they first called Cottonwood Ranch, on the Ft. Kearney Road, operating the stage coach depot and general and grocery in the building where, as before mentioned, a postoffice was also established.
    When, two years later, the Pony Express was started to meet the need for faster, more efficient transportation of mail and messages, their ranch house and little store frequently reverberated to the sound of thundering hoofs as Pony Express riders galloped along the trails, delivering mail and government messages in one of the most thrilling and romantic episodes in the history of American transportation and communication.
    What more natural, then, that Cottonwood Ranch with its ideal location right on the Pony Express route and with an already established postoffice, should become a Pony Express Station? And so it was. Here the riders stopped to change mounts and to pick up and deliver mail. And here it still stands, acknowledged as "The Only Original and Unaltered Pony Express Station in the United States", a Kansas State Park and a Registered National Historical Landmark, so designated by the National Park Service, the U. S. Department of the Interior.
    In 1869, Hollenberg laid out the town of Hanover, choosing a site in the fertile valley of the Little Blue.
    The Portrait and Biographical Album of Washington, Clay and Riley Counties, published in 1890, describes the townsite thusly:

"Hanover is located on the St. Joseph & Grand Island Railroad at a point where the railroads reach the Little Blue River, 127 miles from St. Joseph, Missouri. It is handsomely situated on the north bank of the Little Blue on an elevated slope overlooking the valley. The establishment of the town is due to the enterprise of Mr. Hollenberg who named it Hanover in remembrance of his native place, Hanover, Germany."

    Of course the railroad was not there yet when Mr. Hollenberg laid out his town, but in 1871 the St. Joseph & Denver was extended to Hanover. Up to this time, it had been serviced only by stage.
    The first settlers on the new townsite were William Kalhoefer and August Jaedicke who built the first building, a frame structure, on the south side of what is now the City Park. This building served as living quarters, a general store, a drug store and also housed the postoffice which Mr. Hollenberg, had moved from the Pony Express Station. Thus George Perkins, whose appointment as postmaster Mr. Hollenberg had secured, was Hanover's first postmaster.
    A small section near the center of this already crowded building was reserved for a "salt bank" which was always kept securely locked, and, in early days, was guarded by a large, black dog.
    Why such security measures for what we today might call "common salt"? Because, old timers tell us, salt was not only the pioneers' sole preservative, but was also the only antiseptic known to these early settlers, and marauders, both whites and Indians would spare no effort to obtain it.
    Almost from the very first, emigration to the new townsite was gratifyingly plentiful. Among the earliest to arrive was a wagon train from Ft. Madison, Iowa, headed by Joseph Herynk, a stone mason, his wife and 8-year-old daughter, Rosina Herynk. Joseph Herynk and Jerry Herynk drove a team of small mules, but all the other covered wagons were drawn by oxen, says Rosa Munger, who is a daughter of the youthful Rosina. Other wagons of the train were driven by Tom Hora, John J. Schwartz, Ignatz Masat, Martin Kemper, John Turk, Wenzel Bestak and Thomas Klecan.
    Twelve families in all made up this first wagon train of settlers and others followed.
    With the coming of the railroad, emigration to the rapidly developing community received a real boost. A Catholic missionary, Father John Pichler, a genius at colonization, wrote letters to friends in the eastern states describing the needs of the infant town--perhaps a carpenter, a miller, a stone mason--whatever requirement appeared imminent, and they came, and many had families. Father Pichler's letters praised the advantages of the community, its beautiful setting, its fertile land which could be bought for $2.00 to $3.00 an acre. And emigrants from the east responded by arriving in great numbers.
    The railroad also got into the act. On September 14, 1871, it staged one of the biggest, most widely advertized land auctions ever known in this part of the country, running daily excursions to bring people in for the sale.
    The editor of the Hanover Independent wrote, "Standing on the platform when the Excursion train came in Wednesday morning, one would have thought he was in New York City. Some 440 from H. were there." The "H" presumably stood for Hanover. And the newcomers did buy land. As a result of these promotions, the little town grew rapidly.
    Most of these new settlers were German Catholics, and, for many years, only German was spoken, at least in the homes and churches. Linguistically, Hanover Germans remained expert in their mother tongue until the First World War, but in the town proper, they were, to a large extent, bilingual. Most children born after 1890 were taught to speak English and frequently failed to speak German fluently. Dialects from all over Germany were heard, but, since most of those who emigrated to Hanover came from either Hanover or Oldenburg, Germany, low German was more common in everyday intercourse. Some Bohemian was also spoken, but, gradually, English came to be used mostly in business transactions.
    With the outbreak of World War I, the status of the German language changed abruptly. Its use did not die out entirely, but it became socially unacceptable in public, and the youth of the community found little opportunity to practice it.
    Scarcely had the new town established its identity as a community, when those early settlers turned their attention to the education of their children. A school district was organized in 1868 before the town was even laid out, and, among the personal papers of Gerat Hollenberg was found this notice:

NOTICE

It is hereby given that the annual meeting of School District No.14 will be held on the 26th day of March, A.D. 1868, at the home of Andrew Oswald at 2:00 o'clock P.M.

G. H. Hollenberg, District Clerk.

    In 1869, the first school building was built at the north edge of the original town of Hanover, a one-story stone building, and John Turk, one of the Madison, Iowa, wagon train drivers, was the first teacher. Because of two court house fires in Washington County, one in 1870 and the other in 1872, the earliest records were destroyed, but most historians think the first term of school was taught in 1870. But due to the rapid growth of the town, the school population soon outgrew the little stone schoolhouse, and, in 1879, another school building was constructed and occupied the following year.
    Nor were the religious needs of the community neglected. As early as 1868, a Catholic priest, Rev. Remmele, visited Washington County and found eight Catholic families in the area who, banded together became the nucleus of Hanover's Catholic church. In 1870, a Catholic church was built. St. John's church was built in 1879.
    In 1870 the German Evangelical Society was organized in Hanover. Meetings had been held in the members' homes or in the schoolhouse since 1862. All services were held in the German language.
    As early as 1890 there had been agitation for an English language church, and, as a result, a congregation of Methodists built a church in 1895 which was later combined with the Evangelical Society to form the Evangelical United Brethren church.
    Many of Hanover's early settlers were Lutherans and in 1874 a German Lutheran church was organized. Their building was completed in 1876. It was called Zion Lutheran. Later, both St. John's Catholic and Zion Lutheran had parochial schools.
    In July, 1872, Hanover was transformed from a pioneer village to a city of the third class.
    With a "population of over 200 and less than 2,000", it was lawfully eligible to incorporate as a city of the third class and a majority of the qualified voters of Hanover petitioned the district judge for an order for such incorporation, in the early summer of 1872. The order came through, dated July 5, 1872, and signed by Andrew S. Wilson, Judge of the District Court of the 12th Judicial District of the State of Kansas. It was also ordered that the first City Election be held on the 16th day of July and Henry Marquard, John Borgman and Arnold Niggiman were appointed as election judges.
    For some reason, not recorded, the election was delayed until August 20th. T. H. Smith was elected Hanover's first mayor. Councilmen chosen were James Smith, John Winkleman, J. B. Dingman, Henry Hellman and William Brandt. John Borgman was named city clerk; August Jaedicke, treasurer; William Kalhoefer, police judge; and John Pieper, marshall.
    Between 1872 and 1880, city elections were held annually instead of every two years as they have been since that time.
    G. H. Hollenberg, in his own history of Washington County, wrote:

"Washington County was originally settled by a number of thrifty settlers who raised such crops as they could best sell--corn, oats, potatoes, stock. They found a ready market for all their products on the great overland road to California and the mountains. Travel on this road was heavy and the early settlers were able to get such prices as corn, 75˘ to $1.00 a bushel; hay, from $10 to $20 a ton; eggs, 40˘ to 50˘; butter and cheese, 40˘ to 50˘ a pound; milk, 20˘ a quart; flour $4 to $7 a sack and ham and bacon, 25˘ a pound."

    Of Hanover he wrote:

"Located, as Hanover is, in one of the most densly populated and best agricultural regions, the beautiful, high rolling ground overlooking the grand valley of the Little Blue, it is an inspiring site for a growing and important town. Contiguous to the town on the west runs the clear and rapid waters of the Little Blue with fall and volume of water sufficient to propel almost any amount of machinery . . . . . . Our educational advantages are almost as good as can be found anywhere in the state. A fine, stone schoolhouse graces one of the beautiful eminences of the town, situated on one of the more prominent natural rises which characterize the town. We have a beautiful little Catholic church located on a hill where the spire can be seen over the town, pointing toward heaven. . ."

    Thus we see that Hanover's founder was proud and pleased with his town and its development.
    From unbroken prairie to a thriving village in three short years is indeed rapid development, but that, substantially, is the history of the early development of Hanover.
    That first little store building erected by August Jaedicke and William Kalhoefer was only the beginning of Hanover's business community. The year 1870 saw new businesses springing up around what is now the square, like mushrooms.
    W. Wendell started a blacksmith shop; Henry Marquard built an imposing hotel, first called the Hanover House, but later known as the Marquard Hotel; Charley Jokers started a brewery; Deviman & Smith, a lumber yard; Joseph Klecan, a shoe shop; Theodore Stallbories, a meat market; August Neugebauer, Sr., a wagon shop and Dr. Louis Moll, a drug store.
    Milling, too, was an important industry in those early days. As early as 1863, a saw mill was erected, and, the following year, a burr was added for the purpose of grinding corn. In 1885, a roller mill was built.
    But "All work and, no play makes Jack a dull boy" then as well as now, and those early Hanoverans loved a good time. Many had come out to secure land and get settled, leaving their families to follow later. This could have led to a lonely life. To meet this need, the German Turner Verein was organized to provide a meeting place for men of the new settlement where they might indulge in gymnastics and other social interchange to lighten their leisure hours. In 1874, they built their own Turner Hall, which, through the years has been the scene of many forms of entertainment.
    Organization of Das Deutsche Maenner Verein is also mentioned as a club where the youth of the community, as well as their elders, might meet socially and learn all phases of correct social behavior.
    The first newspaper, the Hanover Ledger, was published in 1871 by W. Bowman. In 1874, August Jaedicke and Louis Moll started a paper which they called the Hanover Pioneer, changing the name two years later to the Hanover Independent.
    E. N. Emmons started publication of a paper in 1877 which he named the Washington County Sun and continued publication for just twenty-two weeks before selling it to J. M. Hood, who called his paper the Hanover Democrat, a name which it continued to carry for many years. Next editor was A. B. Campbell, who published the Democrat from 1894 until 1899, when he sold to James Pontius.
    In 1900, Dillie O. Munger, who had previously been associated here with J. M. Hood, came up from Blue Rapids, expecting to make a deal with Pontius for the Democrat. When this transaction fell through, he established his own newspaper which he called the Hanover Herald. When Mr. Munger died in 1937, Mrs. Munger, her son, Charles, and daughters, Lora and Rosa, formed a corporation and continued publication until 1948, when they sold to B. H. Dieker.
    James Pontius continued publishing the Democrat until 1916, when he was followed by H. R. Fulton, then M. C. Peters and, in 1912, by Frank LaShelle who, in 1919, sold to Omar R. Henderson.
    In 1921, B. H. Dieker bought the Democrat and, assisted by his sons, Bill and Leo, published it until his death, when Leo Dieker assumed full control.
    When the Mungers sold the Herald to the Diekers in 1948, the two papers were merged and the name changed to the Hanover News, which was then published by Leo Dieker until July, 1967, when the present owners and publishers, Robert L. and Dora Ann Sand, purchased it, taking possession August 1, just a few short weeks before Leo Dieker's death. Thus it appears that Hanover has been served by at least one newspaper since 1874, and, since 1877, by its present news media.
    The first white child born in Hanover was a girl, a daughter of Mrs. W. Wendell, wife of an early day blacksmith. The first white boy born here was August Jaedicke, Jr., son of Hanover's first merchant. He was born in a lean-to addition to the store, which was the home of his parents, and lived to hold many positions of importance in both the civic and business world in his natal town.
    In 1872, G. H. Hollenberg and another pioneer resident, J. A. Clapp, donated land on which the town of Hollenberg was built.
    Two calamatious events marked the year 1874. The one, the grasshopper invasion, affected not only Hanover, but this entire area of the country. The hungry hoppers descended suddenly, darkening the entire landscape and devouring everything in sight--crops, clothing, even the handles of the pitchforks, axes and other implements. The land, for miles around was devastated.
    Late in July, 1874, came the shocking news that G. H. Hollenberg, founder of Hanover, was dead.
    In June of that year, Hollenberg, being in failing health, had decided to make a trip back to his native land with the dual purpose of regaining his health and inducing more of his compatriots to emigrate to his new community. On July 1, 1874, he embarked from New York on the steamer Bolivia, whose first stop was Glascow. When, but four hours out at sea, he became violently ill with "Hemorrhages of the lungs" and died about midnight, July 1,1874, at the age of 51. He was buried at sea next morning, the service being read by the captain of the Bolivia.
    News of Hollenberg's death reached Hanover in a letter to P. D. Hartman who "with a handful of type and a hand press", had started a newspaper here in the late 60's or early 70's. Before Hollenberg left on his voyage, Hartman gave him papers, designating him as correspondent of his little paper. When Hollenberg died, a fellow passenger, J. L. Daws saw the papers and wrote to Hartman, giving details of his death and burial. Hartman immediately published an extra edition of his Hanover Enter- prise, announcing:

HANOVER IN MOURNING.
G. H. HOLLENBERG IS DEAD.

    On July 5, 1878, a news article told of the Fourth of July celebration the preceding day. "The morning of the 4th was ushered in with the firing of a salute and the raising of the flag over the City Hall. Numerous flags appeared on private residences. . . . At an early hour people commenced pouring into the city from the country and the celebration promises to be a grand success." There were to be exercises at the Grove, music, reading of the Declaration, speeches, etc., and, in the evening, two balls, one in Turner Hall and one in Wendel's.
    In January, '79, the editor noted that "the ice business is booming and the harvest a rich one. A large amount is being put up by a large number of people. in very fine condition. The city intends to keep cool next summer."
    One man must have neglected to harvest his share of ice, though. It was reported that "Charley Jokers went to St. Joe to make arrangements for obtaining St. Joe beer. . .Charley can't make beer this summer because he put up no ice last winter."
    In May, '79, editorial comment was, "We took a stroll through Habig's Pottery establishment and brick yard. . . He is running a full force of hands making brick, and was placing in the kiln a fine lot of flower vases for burning. Mr. Habig manufactures a large amount of stoneware of very good quality." Thus we see that Hanover industry continued apace.
    No history of Hanover would be complete without mention of outlying communities, usually growing up around churches. One such is the Hermansburg community north of Bremen, built up by German Lutheran farmers, who, in 1869, organized the Hermansburg Emmanuel Lutheran Church which, from that time on has been the center of their social, cultural, as well as their religious life. It also maintains its own parochial school, and this year, 1969, is celebrating its own Centennial.
    The mother church is now surrounded by a number of churches which branched off from the original congregation: Trinity Lutheran, 5-1/2 miles northwest in 1880; Zion congregation in Herkimer in 1892; Bethlehem Lutheran, 5-1/2 miles northeast in 1901.
    In 1880, a band of sturdy German Lutheran farmers, living in the area watered by Horseshoe Creek, established Trinity Lutheran Church. Previously, these Lutherans had attended Hermansburg Emmanuel Lutheran Church. Placing a high esteem on education, they also established a parochial school which they still maintain. The first regularly employed teacher of this school was M. F. Lueders, who was also an early day leader of the famous Horseshoe Farmers Band.
    This band, whose first conductor was William Meyer, a farmer living near Gerardy, has long been an entertainment feature in this part of the county, playing for dances, entertainments of all kinds, and, since Hanover's first Annual Celebration in 1932, has never missed a parade. Martin E. Meyer, who has conducted the band for the past 25 years, says they plan to ride on a float this year, which will portray the history of the band from its organization in 1909 to the present, when it celebrates its 60th anniversary.
    Hanover's first city hall was built in 1875, and in its basement, the town's first jail. Shortly after the town was incorporated, Barney Dingman was appointed town marshall. Frequently troublemakers needed to be locked up, but the town had no jail, so a room in the basement of Dingman's home was equipped with heavy, calaboose doors and bars placed on the windows and miscreants who came afoul of the law were literally "thrown into the cooler". The present City Hall was a P. W. A. project, and was completed and dedicated in 1939.
    In 1883, W. J. Schwartz founded the Schwartz general store, which, now owned by Charles J. Schwartz, has been greatly enlarged and modernized. From Schwartz's store on Gospel Hill, it has become the large, modern "Schwartz's Shopping Center", and is conceded to be the oldest Hanover business under continuous family ownership.
    By the late 1890's, we find that Hanover was by no means devoid of cultural amusements. The Hanover Dramatic Club was organized and frequently enacted plays at Turner Hall. At one time Mrs. M. A. Aurner was manager. Among the actors listed, appear many well known names: Jaedicke, Taft, Whitmore, Gilson, Spence, Thiele, Buenting, Keefover, Wells, Foote and Seeberger.
    Mr. and Mrs. S. D. Harlow, managers of Hotel Markham, were grandparents of Jean Harlow, of movie fame, who grew up in their home. Don Carlos Taft, president of the Bank of Hanover, was the father of the famous sculptor, Lorado Taft, and of a daughter, Zulime Taft, who became the wife of the novelist, Hamlin Garland. Other members of the Taft family were F. A., Turby and Teetie Taft.
    August Jaedicke was president of the Hanover State Bank, A. J. Whitmore; vice-president, and August Jaedicke, Jr., whose wife and daughter, Lucile, still live here in Hanover, was cashier, and a Seeberger is still listed as a member of Hanover's business community.
    Musical organizations, always on hand for entertainment included George Triska's Little German Band, Herr Stein and His Pretzels, The Hanover Booster Concert Band, The Hanover Cornet Band, The Horseshoe Farmers Band, Pecenka's Band, the Ladies Mandolin Club and numerous others. Fred Nemitz was organizer and first conductor of the Booster Band, followed by Charles T. Schwartz, now the only surviving member.
    For the first twenty-three years after Hanover's incorporation, water for all needs was provided by wells and cisterns, so the need for a water system was felt early in the town's history. An early day editor wrote: "As to protection against fire, Hanover is all right except water. She has engines, hooks, ladders, buckets, hose and all the paraphernalia for efficient work but where is the water?"...and another editorial comment, "The city fathers should go to work and start saving up money for the purpose of securing a water supply. We are at the mercy of flames. Because we have had but few fires for some years is no reason we may not."
    And so, in 1895, the first water system was built. Since that time, it has been improved and enlarged a number of times and a water softener installed so now the city has plenty of clean, soft water.
    The year 1895 also saw the completion of the Methodist church and, in 1899, Mueller & Co. and H.O. Janicke organized the city's first telephone company, called the Hanover Telephone Co. Mueller & Co. included E. H. Mueller and H. M. Mueller. In 1904, reins of the Telephone Co. were turned over to August Jaedicke, Jr. The company remained privately and locally owned until 1927 when it was bought by the Western Telephone Co. The Hanover Exchange later became a part of Southwestern Bell Telephone Co. and, in 1956, was changed over to the dial system.
    From the very beginning, industry developed rapidly in the new community. There was a flour mill run by C. S. Chapman; a brick yard by Henry Wuelff; two carpenters, J. Beckwith and F. Salin; two painters, Hartman and Haug. The town had three physicians, Drs. Jacobs, Koenig and Moll. By 1901, the town had grown to the point where it could boast a population of 1,148, including 325 children of school age. Among its businesses were eight general stores, two furniture stores, 3 drug, stores, 3 hardware stores, two undertakers, 3 implement firms, two banks, 4 millinery stores, 3 harness shops, two jewelry stores, three hotels, three restaurants, two lumber yards, two grain and coal firms, two shoe shops, three barber shops, two livery barns, one photograph gallery, one pop factory, eight ice houses, a marble and granite works and three real estate firms.
    There were also a dray line, two railroad depots, two stock yards, a fine city hall and park, one Turner Hall and park, one Woodman Insurance hall, three private halls, a railroad roundhouse and machine shops, two pump houses, a postoffice, three school houses, four churches and twenty-two benevolent societies.
    The railroads have always been a boon to Hanover. From the time when, in 1871, the St. Joseph & Denver railroad was extended to Hanover up to the present day, railroading has been an important industry here. The St. Joseph & Denver, later to become a part of the Union Pacific system, maintained a roundhouse and machine shops west of the tracks. In 1894, the Burlington also came into Hanover. Two huge feedlots were built to take care of the hundreds of carloads of sheep, cattle and horses passing through daily.
    Old timers will tell you how, after Hanover became a U. P. division point, as many as one hundred carloads of sheep would be unloaded at the sheep pens where the ball park now stands, then fed, watered and reloaded in one day.
    Today, railroad transportation has speeded up immeasurably, thus eliminating the need for feeding and watering of stock en route, but still a great deal of livestock is shipped by rail, especially hogs from Kansas City and St. Joseph to Salt Lake City and the west coast. But the bulk of railroad freight has switched from livestock to cars, machinery, lumber, fresh fruits and vegetables, and miscellaneous, according to Robert Springer, local U. P. agent.
    Passenger service, though, once the envy of other nearby towns, has dwindled to nothing, although there was a time when everyone, traveling by rail, had to change cars here.
    Hanover had its first electric lights in 1910. The city built its first powerhouse and street lighting system, and made electricity available to its citizens, maintaining this system until 1927, when it was sold to the Kansas Power & Light Co., which still continues to serve the city with electricity.
    In 1919, the city council, believing that the health of the community could best be maintained by installing a sanitary sewer system, passed an ordinance calling for the construction of a modern sewer system large enough to accommodate a large increase in the town's population.
    Among the industries that have come and gone through the years is the Hanover Canning Co., which opened for business in 1904, canning tomatoes, sweet corn and jack rabbits until 1912, when due to a shortage of these products, it ceased canning and was sold to The Standard Products Co. After changing hands several times, the plant became the property of Wilson & Co., and in 1928, Perry Packing Co., which operated here until 1953, when it was moved to Marysville, throwing some one hundred people out of work.
    Hanover's first picture show, a silent movie, was shown in the building now occupied by Gus Kuck; the next location was in a building just west of the P & P Market. The first talking pictures were shown in a garage, just north of Bill's Mobil Station.
    In February, 1937, Ben Dingman opened the Kaw Theatre in the building west of the drug store. John Jacoby operated it for eight months, until September, 1937, when Ollie Flaherty took it over. It was closed Dec. 2, 1956.
    On a Sunday afternoon in December, 1921, Hanover residents who were listening to their radios, were surprised to hear music by local musicians issuing from their receiving sets. Investigation disclosed that the program was, in reality, being aired right here in Hanover. William (Bill) Ellis, manager of the local telephone exchange, had built a radio broadcasting set and, for the next two or three years, Hanover citizens were frequently treated to programs aired right here in Hanover. Among musicians most often heard were the bands and other ensembles before mentioned, vocalists, O. D. Welch, local photographer, and his son, O. D. Welch, Jr., of Washington; Marvin Koeneke of Bremen and other local talent. At one time, the set was hooked up in the EUB church and an entire Palm Sunday service and program were broadcast. Records show that this form of local entertainment lasted until 1923.
    One of the older business firms which is still doing business is Dingman's Drug Store, opened by John Dingman in 1894 two doors west of the present location. Ben Dingman joined his brother in 1912 and they moved to the store's present location. In 1954, on the death of Ben Dingman, Elmer Turk, present owner, acquired the business.
    The large number of young men who joined the U. S. forces in World War I was one expression of the patriotism all felt for their adopted country. Those who remained at home, purchased war bonds with a will and the women joined the red cross and tirelessly sewed, knitted and made surgical dressings as their part of the war effort.
    As the men returned home, singly or in groups, they were welcomed with speeches and other oratory, and were serenaded by one or more of the town's bands. Later, most of these men became members of Hanover's active American Legion Post, Clement T. Farrell Post No.306, as did Hanover veterans of World War II and the Korean War.
    Another Hanover organization which has done much to promote and preserve the town's safety is the Hanover Fire Co. Organized in 1886 of volunteer firemen, it has, for 83 years, done a heroic job of fighting fires which might otherwise have proved disastrous.
    Much of Hanover's later history has transpired within the lifetime of most of her present citizenry. "All those things which are held to be of greatest antiquity were at one time new", and today's events will be history to coming generations. But even now, some years stand out as eventful. In 1931, a Catholic grade school was built near St. John's church. In 1940, an impressive grotto was added, and in 1961, the old convent, built in 1882, was replaced with a new one.
    In 1949, a bond election provided funds to build a clinic to be leased to a doctor and, in 1958 another such election assured an addition to the hospital. A 38-bed addition is now in the planning stage.
    The year 1953 was one of great progress from all reports. In January , Hanover Hospital District purchased a new Autoclave; Hanover's Wildcats won the A-team county championship. March came in like a lion, dumping eight inches of snow on the city. In April, all churches in the city united for Holy Week services.
    In June of that year, the paving was completed, and curb and gutter installed on Denver Ave., one of the most outstanding improvements the city had seen.
    In July, The Friendship Home Demonstration unit sponsored the beginning of Hanover's Library and Hanover's Annual Celebration, now called the "Days of '49", staged a mile-long parade which attracted 15,000 people and caused a traffic jam which extended the four miles south to US-36.
    In December, '53, the city voted to build a high school auditorium and add more classrooms.
    More recent improvements include the city swimming pool, 1963; a new postoffice, 1961; new buildings built by Bruna Brothers, Sedlacek's and the Farmers Co-op Elevator, all of which have altered and improved the business district.
    Late in 1968, the American Legion completed a new hall and an 18-unit low cost housing development is now under construction at the east edge of town.
    Now, in 1969, as she celebrates her 100th birthday, Hanover can boast a business community of two railroads, one bank, a hospital with two doctors and a dentist; one furniture and two appliance dealers, two electric shops, one barber shop, three beauty shops, one shopping center, which includes both groceries and dry goods; a grocery market; one lumber yard, three filling stations, one locker plant, two ceramic shops, two cafes, one elevator and a feed and seed store; a sand and gravel company.
    A laundromat, a cleaning establishment, one plumber, two insurance agencies, five garages, one car wash, one tavern, one liquor store, one construction company, one drug store, one newspaper, one implement dealer, two produce dealers, a cabinet maker, three kennels and one salvage company.
    And a whole city full of families who are proud of their 100-year-old town.


THANKSGIVING PROCLAMATION!
By The Mayor

In accordance with a custom now long established, in setting apart a day of thanksgiving, and since the President of the United States has designated Thursday, the 28th day of November, 1889, as a day of national prayer, Therefore, I, T. H. Murphy, Mayor of the city of Hanover, Washington County, Kansas, do hereby recommend and urge that upon that day the people of Hanover abstain from their usual avocations and employments, and meet in their respective places of worship, and join in thanksgiving and praise for the bountiful harvest, the general health of our people and various other blessings we enjoy, and for the general prosperity of our entire country, not forgetting the poor who are always with us and out of great bounty should not be forgotten on that day.

Frank Imming, City Clerk -- T. H. Murphy, Mayor


 

Hon. G. Henry Hollenberg
   Hon. G. Henry Hollenberg was one of the most noted of the German settlers of Kansas, and contributed largely to the upbuilding of Hanover and the country round in Washington County. He was the first settler in the township and came to the county in the fall of 1858, settling on the old Ft. Kearney Road at a point which he called "Cottonwood Ranch". Here he kept a small stock of groceries and a general store, and also obtained an appointment for his clerk, George Perkins, and established a post-office at this point. He continued this ranch during the time of the immense travel and transportation to California and the mountains by overland stages and freighting trains. It was near this point that the road crossed the Little Blue on the trail to Marysville, thence to the Big Blue, thence following the valley to near Ft. Kearney. Mr. H. had his ranch here during the raids by the Indians on travelers and ranchmen up the valley. During these troubles he was Colonel of a regiment of State Militia, and an expedition was soon in pursuit of the Indians, but accomplished little but to drive them up toward the head of the Republican.
    Hanover is located on the St. Joe and Grand Island Railroad at a point where the railroads reach the Little Blue River 127 miles from St. Joe, Mo. It is handsomely situated on the north bank of the Little Blue, on an elevated slope overlooking the valley. The establishment of the town is due to the enterprise of Mr. H. who named it Hanover in remembrance of his native place, Hanover, Germany. During the Indian raid of August, 1864, a party of Cheyennes and Arapahoes who were waging war on the whites in western Kansas and Colorado extended their raids into the valley of the Little Blue, near a place called Oak Grove six miles above where Hanover now stands. A family named Eubanks, ten in number, was murdered and scalped; ...a man named Kelly was killed at Pawnee Station; Patrick Burk and a man named Butler were killed three miles above Oak Grove; two other men were killed and a young lady named Laura Roper was carried into captivity, and other outrages committed. This occurred during the time the Indians were striving for continued possession of the country assigned to them by the treaty of 1851. Most of the settlers fled to the Big Blue in Marshall Co. Mr. H. bore an active and honorable part with the militia and others in defense of the homes of the settlers.
    Gerat Henry Hollenberg was born in the province of Hanover, Germany, Dec. 19, 1823, son of a farmer, Rudolph Hollenberg. His father was of limited means and his son received but a common school education, and spent his early years helping his father on the farm. In 1849, at the time of the Gold Rush in California, he left his native land and sailed for this country. For three years he worked as a common laborer in the mines in California, and accumulated about $3,000. He then joined a mining expedition and sailed for Australia. There he mined quite successfully, but, when mining excitement broke out in Peru, he and 65 others left for Peru. There they suffered untold hardships. They crossed the Andes Mountains and, at great hardship, a branch of the Amazon River, fought almost daily with hostile Indians and exhausted both ammunition and provisions. The trip took seven months, each man having two mules, one to ride and one for a pack animal. On Mr. Hollenberg's return to Lima, he took passage for New York via Isthmus of Panama.
    He became ill in New York and was advised by his physician to take a trip for his health. He started westward, booked passage on a steamboat at St. Louis, and sailed up the Missouri to Weston, Missouri, above Leavenworth and, in the spring of 1854, arrived in Marshall County, Kansas, where he settled on the Black Vermillion, at what is now (in 1890) Bigelow, a station of the Chicago, Burlington & Union Pacific Railroad, now known as the Missouri Pacific. There he kept a general store, farmed, his store being at the fork on the old Independence and California trail.
    In. the fall of 1858, he moved to, and established "Cottonwood Ranch" near Hanover. While residing on the Vermillion, he met and married, on the 15th of May, 1858, Miss Sophia Brockmeyer, in Marshall County.
    He was a staunch Republican and a member of the Lutheran Church. He was three times elected to the State Legislature of Kansas. He was for several terms a County Commissioner, and always Chairman of the Board.
    As the founder of Hanover and Hollenberg, he will always be remembered by the citizens of Washington County. Ever ready to assist his poorer neighbors, he often gave them corn and provisions, and even furnished them seed for their spring or fall planting.
    He established the city of Hanover in 1869, and his time and means were devoted to the development of that city.
    In June, 1874, Mr. H., being in poor health, decided to visit his native land, with the double purpose of regaining his health, and inducing imigration. He reached New York the latter part of June and sailed from that harbor on the steamer, Bolivia, July 1, 1874. The steamer was but four hours at sea when he became violently ill with hemorrhage of the lungs . . . He breathed his last about midnight, July 1, 1874, in his 51st year. He was buried in the Atlantic Ocean next day, the funeral service being read by the Captain. He was identified by papers on his person, and after the steamer had made the trip to Glasgow and return, the papers and an official notice of his death were mailed to his friends.
    In Hanover cemetery, a monument contains a brief biographical sketch of his life and names him as the founder of Hanover and the father of Washington County. May his virtues be ever cherished in the memory of the citizens of the county as a bright oasis in their history. At his death, he left a large estate. His widow subsequently married Judge W. Kalhoefer, and resides in Hanover.
(From Portrait and Biographical Album of Washington, Clay and Riley Counties, published in Chicago in 1890 by Chapman Brothers.)

HANOVER TOWNSHIP ONE OF THE OLDEST
Township established in 1870.
   Hanover township is one of the oldest townships in Washington County. Boundaries for the new township, to be known as Hanover Township, in honor of Hanover, Germany, the birthplace of G. H. Hollenberg, were first established on September 5, 1870.
    According to the description, Hanover Township was about three times as large as the present township, Franklin township and Charleston township being taken from the original Hanover township at a later date.
    The first township officers were Wm. Kalhoefer, Trustee; A. J. Coleman, Clerk; A. Oswald, Treasurer. This election was held in 1871.
    On July 2, 1872, the township was divided for the first time, a strip of territory, now Franklin Township, northwest of Hanover being taken out, and which is now Franklin Township.
    Again, in January of 1874, the township was divided to exclude "all the territory lying in Town 2, Range 4, said territory being organized into Charleston Township".
    In January, 1879, that part of the Otoe Indian Reservation lying in Washington County was thrown open for settlement, and it was annexed to Hanover Township.
    In 1864, an Indian raid was staged in Hanover Township. In the early days of its existence, an election was held annually in Hanover Township.
    In 1885, Washington County was divided into the system of townships as they now stand.
    Hanover Township of today is one of the most thickly settled townships in the county. With its bottom farms, its upland farms, dairying industry, gravel pits, and the town of Hanover located in the township, it furnishes one of the most diversified industries of the entire county.

 

A BRIEF HISTORICAL SKETCH
HOLLENBERG RANCH PONY EXPRESS STATION
HANOVER, KANSAS

A Registered National Historic Landmark
National Park Service
United States Department of Interior

By: LEO E. DIEKER
Former Publisher of The Hanover News
Past President, Washington County Oregon Trail Association

   In the early year of 1857, which proved to be the year of destiny for Washington County and the Hanover community, Kansas had not grown to full stature of statehood but was a Territory of the rapidly growing United States of America, and the year was a crucial period in the fortunes of the Free State Party in Kansas. In that one year Governors came and went in almost continual parade -- and the Free Staters and Pro-Slavers were fighting to the death in eastern Kansas. Flaming barns and log cabins lighted up the sky all the way from Lawrence to Leavenworth and Atchison, and as far south as the Oklahoma Territory line. Daniel Woodson took over the Kansas Territorial Governor's office when Governor John W. Geary was absent. Also part of the time Frederick P. Stanton was Governor. History also records that during that eventful year -- 1857 -- Robert Walker and James W. Denver served as Governor with Denver holding out amid the bloodshed and battles of "bleeding Kansas" until 1858.
    Into this turmoil and strife for a way of life in that eventful year of 1857, came a young man with vision, courage, and an unshakeable faith in God, the brotherhood of man, and the inevitable triumph of Justice over Intolerance, qualities which were so essential to the pioneer seeking to establish a home on the great plains of the midwest, and if you please, qualities which are still so badly needed to combat intolerance, greed, and the communistic philosopy which is undermining American ideals.
    This young man was G. H. Hollenberg. He was traveling the route of the Oregon Trail, a route which he had traveled before as a gold miner bound for California in 1849.
    Approximately two miles northeast of the present town of Hanover, Kansas, the Oregon Trail came down the high bluffs to cross Cottonwood Creek on its way northwestward to the Little Blue River Valley and on to Fort Kearney, Nebraska. On a knoll, a few hundred yards northwest of Cottonwood Creek Mr. Holleriberg saw the opportunity to establish a thriving business with a trading station, and to build a home and a community of pioneer settlers on the lush prairies. So, hauling lumber from the Barrett Saw Mill in Marshall County he constructed the Hollenberg Ranch station large enough to house himself and his faithful wife, and at the same time furnish quarters for a general store, post office and hostelry. This house was the first house to be constructed in Washington County, Kansas, and stands today as it was built in the fall of 1857.
    Before building Hollenberg Ranch Mr. Hollenberg had first settled on the Black Vermillion creek near the present settlement of Bigelow in Marshall county, Kansas, coming there in 1854. There he also operated a store until he was married to Miss Sophia Brockmeyer on May 15, 1858, and he and his bride come to make their home in newly-built Hollenberg Ranch Station on Cottonwood Creek.
    In those years -- 1857 to the early 1860's -- there was heavy travel over the Oregon Trail and past Hollenberg or "Cottonwood Station" as it was known. The gold rush of the early 1850's had barely subsided, and history records the fact that some 15,000 people traveled the famous Oregon Trail to the west, each year from the 1850's to the late 1860's.
    Naturally, Mr. Hollenberg prospered at his Cottonwood Station serving the countless wagon trains. There were always people at this station for meals, or for lodging, or camped on the knolls and valleys surrounding the station. Mr. Hollenberg was called on to supply clothing and foodstuffs for these people, and feed for the large number of oxen and horses which pulled their covered wagons. In addition, cattle were needed by the emigrants to supply them with food and horses were needed as replacements for animals that had fallen by the side of the trail on the long trek to the west. To supply these Mr. Hollenberg raised herds of cattle and horses on the lush bluestem pastures surrounding his station.
    Below the hill and to the east from the station house was a long stable which could house some 100 head of horses and oxen, and in the spring of 1860 A. E. Lewis, superintendent of the eastern division of the Pony Express, which was being formed, visited Mr. Hollenberg and arranged for Hollenberg Ranch to become a station for that colorful mail service.
    On April 3, 1860, the first run of the Pony Express was made from St. Joseph, Mo., to Sacra- mento, California. John Mupsy, one of the riders of the Pony Express, came to Hollenberg Ranch, where he lived, as the Ranch had been designated as one of the stations where ponies and riders were changed. From April, 1860 until J une 1 of the same year the mail of the Pony Express reached Hollen- berg Ranch once a week from both the east and the west. Then from June 1, 1860 until July 1, 1861, the mail arrived at this station twice a week. In order to meet the demand for still better service the mail trips were increased to daily each direction until the enterprise was discontinued on October 25, 1861 -- thus closing one of the most colorful chapters of early American life which was forced to give way to progress -- the completion of the first transcontinental telegraph line.
    On July 1, 1861, when the daily Holliday Stage Line was started, Hollenberg Ranch saw new and added activity. This stage line ran from Atchison, Kansas, to Sacramento, California, and every day two stage coaches stopped at Hollenberg Ranch -- one eastbound and one westbound. Horses were kept at this famous ranch and teams pulling the stages were changed there daily.
    Hollenberg Ranch also served as a postoffice -- the first postoffice in Washington County, Kansas -- and the principal clerk in Mr. Hollenberg's store, George Perkins, was sworn in as postmaster.
    With its service as postoffice, hostelry, supply station, and Pony Express station, Hollenberg Ranch served well the pioneers who settled the west and traveled the trail. Thousands of people satisfied their hunger at its table and quenched their thirst at its famous bar in the heyday of its opulence and activity. Its hospitality was extended to many famous names in early American history.
    Hollenberg Ranch also served well the military forces of the United States. In 1857 and 1858 General Albert S. Johnston commanded a unit of 5,000 troops who were ordered from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, to Fort Bridger, Utah. These soldiers traveled the Oregon Trail to their Utah post, and in so doing stopped at Hollenberg Ranch which was one of the few outposts of civilization on the route of their journey. Russell, Majors and Waddell, who were later to establish a wagon freight service over the trail were entrusted with the huge task of freighting the enormous amount of supplies to maintain the troops of General Johnston's command.
    Through the efforts of a few Hanover men and women the Kansas State Legislature was induced in 1941 to appropriate the sum of $3,000 to buy this famous old ranch house with seven and one-half acres of surrounding land, so that the station could be forever preserved. Of this original appropriation $2,500 was used to purchase the property and the remaining $500 was spent on restoration work. Subsequent sessions of the state legislature have granted small appropriations for maintenance and further restoration.
    Supervising the maintenance of the property is the Washington County Oregon Trail Association, which was organized and incorporated under the laws of the State of Kansas in 1941.
    No history of Hollenberg Ranch would be complete without some mention of its builder -- G. H. Hollenberg, who was also the founder of the present town of Hanover.
    Mr. Hollenberg was born in the Province of Hanover, Germany, on December 19, 1823. During the California Gold Rush in 1849 he left his native country and came to the United States to seek his fortune. He was then 26 years of age. He spent three years in California working as a laborer in the mines and accumulated the sum of $3,000, when he joined a mining expedition and sailed for Australia. There he was successful as a gold miner, and when gold was discovered in Peru, South America, he and 65 others left Australia for the South American country. There they crossed the Andes Mountains, but on account of the hostility of the natives were forced to flee to Lima, Peru. At Lima he abandoned his gold mining plans in South America and set sail for New York via the Isthmus of Panama. This was an eventful trip as he was shipwrecked off the coast of Florida, but his life was saved.
    Shortly after his arrival in New York he became ill and while convalescing his physician advised him to go to the west. This eventually brought him to Cottonwood Creek, near Hanover, where he built his now famous station house.
    Mr. Hollenberg was three times elected to the Kansas Territorial Legislature. In 1869, he founded the City of Hanover and from that time on gave up his activity at Hollenberg Ranch and devoted his time and efforts to building his new town.
    In June, 1874, Mr. Hollenberg decided to visit his native Germany for the two-fold purpose of a vacation trip and inducing emigration to this community. On June 30, 1874, he sailed from New York Harbor aboard the steamer "Bolivia" which was bound for Glasco, Scotland. The ship was but four hours out of the New York port when Mr. Hollenberg became violently ill with a Hemorrhage of the lungs. About four o'clock in the morning of July 1, 1874, he died at the age of 51, and was buried in the Atlantic ocean.
    Thus ended the career of a great man who built the famous Hollenberg Ranch station on the Oregon Trail, and which today remains the only original and unaltered Pony Express Station still standing on the location where it was built.

HANOVER CITY CEMETERY

    The Hanover Cemetery Association dates back to April, 1871. With the long-range foresight that characterized the early settlers of this community, the need for a cemetery for the new town -- Hanover -- then a mere infant, was felt by the community leaders.
    Accordingly, on April 22, 1871, a meeting of the citizens of Hanover and community was held and the Hanover Cemetery Association was organized. Mr. G. H. Hollenberg, founder of Hanover, called the meeting to order. By motion, Jacob Werner was elected chairman, and Wm. Kalhoefer, secretary.
    G. H. Hollenberg offered to donate five acres of land, and Fred Brockmeyer, Sr., three acres to the Association. The offer was accepted. Jacob Werner and Wm. Holst donated a strip of land leading from the state road to the cemetery for road purposes.
    The first directors elected were G. H. Hollenberg, Andy Oswald, Mat Oswald, Fred Brockmeyer, Henry Allerheiligen and Wm. Kalhoefer. Jacob Werner was chosen as overseer. Then committees were appointed to have the grounds fenced in with a barb wire fence. Money for this purpose and for the purpose of surveying the grounds and planting trees and hedge along the cemetery line, was raised by free will donations among the citizens of the community.
    In the spring of 1903, it was decided to have the cemetery put in proper condition; a man was hired, a Page fence and arch gate were put up, and other improvements made. The old rock quarry was turned into flower beds, a fountain and windmill were erected. The road leading to and from the cemetery was improved and a cement sidewalk was made from the city limits to the cemetery. It is understood that different organizations in the city each agreed to finance the laying of a section of this sidewalk.
    A total of 96 markers were bought at one time for use in marking all graves on the cemetery; 65 of these going into the charity lot, so that all graves are marked.
    The Cemetery Association has always taken pride in the appearance of the city's burial ground. Now a caretaker is employed, the grass kept mowed, and other work kept in shape. With its imposing monuments, the trees, shrubbery and flowers, well kept lots, and graveled driveways, the Hanover Cemetery is a fitting and beautiful place for the long sleep of those who have gone before.
    Nearly $2,000 has been spent by the Cemetery Association in making the various improvements which have been made since 1871 when the first group of pioneers met for the purpose of establishing the Hanover Cemetery.

MARBLE SHAFT HONORS FOUNDER OF HANOVER

    On a high, grassy slope in Hanover Cemetery stands a simple, yet beautifully impressive marker erected in loving memory of the man who founded Hanover.
    A simple inscription beginning to fade somewhat from the ravages of time and the elements, tells the simple story of the founder of Hanover. This marker was erected in 1878 to perpetuate the memory of the man who founded the town, and who donated the land on which the cemetery is located.
    Fate decreed, however, that Mr. Hollenberg should not rest in the soil he had generously donated for cemetery purposes; nor even to rest in the soil of Kansas, a state that owes him much for his untiring work, his foresighted progressiveness and generosity, which made possible much development in this section of the state. Frail in health, he undertook a journey to his native Germany in the hope that the rest and change of climate would be of benefit to him.
    Shortly after the steamship on which he was a passenger sailed from New York, Mr. Hollenberg became violently ill and died on shipboard. He is buried in the Atlantic Ocean.
    Carved in simple letters in the marble shaft is the following inscription:

"This Monument is erected in remembrance of the HON. H. G. HOLLENBERG, the founder of Hanover. He was born December 18, 1823, at Veuenhinchen, Kingdom of Hanover, Germany, and died July 1, 1874, on the Steamship 'Bolivia' on a voyage to Germany, and is buried in the Atlantic ocean."

1878

HANOVER CITY HALL

    The town's first City Hall was built in 1875. On a white rock in the square brick structure was inscribed the following: G. H. Hollenberg--1875, in honor of the founder of Hanover and donor of the ground used for park purposes.
    When Mr. Hollenberg started to induce early settlers to start the construction of a town named Hanover, in honor of the town of his birth, Hanover Germany, he saw the possibilities of the new town, and visioned its growth from a prairie village to an important commercial center.
    Therefore, one of his first acts, after designating the land upon which the original town of Hanover was to be located, was to have the ground surveyed and a square near the center of the town set aside as a city square, in the center of which the city hall was to be built.
    Incorporated in 1872, Hanover official city business was transacted for a period of three years in various business places and residence houses in the city before a hall for that purpose was constructed.
    One of the first matters of city business after the maze of details to be ironed out following the town's incorporation, was the levying of a tax for hall construction purposes. Mr. Hollenberg, knowing the financial difficulties which would arise in the new town, made a provision in his will to help in the matter of the building of a suitable city hall for the town.
    The contract was let in two parts, one part for the building of the basement and the other for the construction of the hall proper. The Agreement for the basement project was signed on the 25th day of May, 1875, in the amount of $469.50 by contractors P. D. Hartman and C. R. Green. Contract for the building proper was signed on the 12th day of July, 1875, in the amount of $1,199.00, awarded to Michelson, Selm & Co.
    The City Hall was completed, accepted and dedicated in the fall of 1875. It was used as a meeting place for the city council, a polling place for Hanover precinct at elections, and other business of a public nature until the year 1939.
    Construction of the new hall, which also included the removal of the old hall, was started on October 3, 1938, and finished on November 6, 1939. Mr. Al J. Price was employed by the Works Progress Administration as Superintendent of the project, Sennie Racette as foreman and Frederick Koch as timekeeper and material clerk. The project employed an average of 12 men per day during the construction period, the project was finished within its WPA budget and only about half of the man-months allowed for the project were used.
    The new, modern and fireproof building cost approximately $25,000, was officially completed and turned over to the city of Hanover on November 14th. Out of the total cost, the City furnished $8,000, which was raised by a special bond election a year previous. The balance of the cost was provided by the Federal Government as a WPA work program project. Open house was held November 18, 1939. The city administration in office at the time consisted of: Max H. Seeberger, Mayor; Frank Imming, Sr., George D. Kile, S. B. Doebele, John H. Sekal, Anton Triska, Jr., Councilmen; and O. R. Hassur, City Clerk.

OUR MAYORS
A Century of Progress

    The City of Hanover, Kansas, was incorporated on July 5, 1872. Early official records apparently are not available to verify the exact dates and terms of office of the men who served as Mayor during the first few years of it's existence. However, research of various biographical sketches of some of the more prominent early settlers and citizens of Hanover make reference to certain individuals who served in this capacity at one time or another.
    Except for the first few years, all the names and dates were obtained from the official records of the City Clerks on file in the City's archives, as follows: T. H. Smith - 1871, 1st Mayor; Dr. Louis Moll - 1872; Wm. Kalhoefer - 1874; Joseph Hellman - 1880; J. M. Hood - 1883; Joseph Hellman - 1885; Charles Mulligan - 1886; Fred Ehrke - 1887; Thomas H. Murphy - 1889; R. Wald - 1891; A. J. Whitmore - 1892; Thomas H. Murphy - 1893; A. D. Campbell - 1894; E. W. Thiele - 1896; Michael Triska - 1897; E. W. Thiele - 1898; August Jaedicke, Jr. - 1899; Fred Kalhoefer - 1902; August Jaedicke, Jr. - 1903; Frank Imming - 1907; Wm. Doebele - 1909; Dugald Spence - 1913; Wm. Doebele -1919; J. T. Pieper - 1921; August Neugebauer - 1923; C. G. Seifert - 1925; E. W. Thiele - 1927; E. H. Miller - 1933; Max Seeberger - 1937; John H. Sekal - 1943; Sylvester Doebele - 1951; Max Seeberger - 1955; Edward Knedlik - 1959; Gilbert Seeberger - 1961; J. Floyd Bruna - 1963; Cecil Jones - 1967; Cecil Jones - 1969.

HANOVER FIRE COMPANY

    The first attempt to organize a fire fighting company was made in 1875. The company was a volunteer organization, a group of public spirited citizens who banded together for the purpose of fighting any fires which might threaten to destroy property. A little equipment was bought and the organization is said to have done a good job whenever their services were required. It is not known just when the company went out of business.
    The present fire company was organized March 26, 1886. After being chartered by the State, the fire company was brought under the jurisdiction of the city and partly maintained with city funds. Equipment was added from time to time in an effort to keep the company up-to-date.
    The board of directors chosen at the time of the charter was granted were: George Guenther, Wenzel Bestak, Chas. Weber, D. O. Munger and John Adelsek. The fire company was incorporated as Hanover Fire Company No.1. Incorporation papers stated that the life of the corporation should be 99 years.
    A number of years later a branch fire company was organized which had it's fire fighting equipment stored in a small tin shed near the Burlington railroad tracks. After a few years of this arrangement, this second company was discontinued and all its membership transferred to Fire Co. No.1.
    The equipment, consisting of two 2-wheel hose carts and a hook-and-ladder wagon, was housed in a two-story frame building situated on the northeast corner of the City Square. The upper floor was used as a meeting room. The fire bell was in the belfry and operated by ropes. In case of a fire, the alarm was sounded by the first person to get to the fire house.
    About the time the new City Hall was completed in 1939, the old fire house was razed and since then the fire equipment has been housed in the basement of the City Hall.
    Since 1886, a period of 83 years, the Hanover Fire Company has been an active organization. They have done remarkable work in fighting many fires that might otherwise have proved disasterous.
    Interest in the company among its members has always remained high. Attendance at their regular monthly meetings is the envy of many other organizations. Membership at the present time is 34.
    In 1937, a new fire truck was purchased to bring the equipment up-to-date. Then, in 1965, it was replaced with a later model machine in order to comply with requirements under the State fire insurance laws regarding this type of equipment.
    The fire company has done an outstanding job, under some adverse conditions and circumstances, during the long period of years the volunteer firemen have served and protected the lives and property of the people of Hanover.

HISTORY OF EDUCATION

    Scarcely had the little prairie town of Hanover begun to show signs of being a town, and a few plowed fields scattered about marred the surface of the unbroken prairie, until the early settlers of Hanover and the surrounding community, who were determined to stick to their land and develop a new country, turned their minds to the matter of education.
    Accordingly, tradition has it that one of the first matters of public improvement and community development to be discussed at every place where pioneers gathered, was the establishment of a school district. They were anxious to have their children versed in the fundamentals of a workable education. Just when the first school district was established and the first term of school taught, is not known, for two courthouse fires, one in 1870, and the other in 1872, completely destroyed all the early records. However, it is definitely known that a school district had been organized prior to 1869. An interesting souvenir found in some of the personal papers of the new town. Here is a copy of the notice.
    Notice is hereby given that the annual meeting of School District 14 will be held on the 26th day of March, A.D., 1868, at the house of Andrew Oswald at 2 p.m. Signed, G. H. Hollenberg, District Clerk. As you can see from this notice, the district had formed prior to 1868.
    At this meeting, it was decided that the district build a school house and it was located where the present Jos. Bruna home now is. It was finished, and the first year of school started in the fall of 1870, and John Turk was the teacher. In the following years from 1870 to 1878, Hanover enjoyed a phenominal growth, making the first school house inadequate to handle the large number of students. Accordingly, at a meeting of the patrons of the district, held a year previously, it was voted to buy more ground for school purposes. As a result of that decision, the quarter block of ground which now constitutes the northeast part of the present school ground was acquired. At the annual meeting of District 14, held in March of 1878, a contract was let to build a two-story stone building on the newly acquired site. The cost of this building was $1,100.00.
    In an issue of the Hanover Democrat we find a report of the first year in the new building, and it shows that they had 83 pupils enrolled, and J. C. S. Murphy was the teacher. A few short years, and that building was no longer adequate to handle the school, enrollments were larger, and there was demand for a high school. Just when grades 9 and 10 were added to the school, the records do not show. However, in 1889, the two-story brick building with the bell tower, was built. The records do not show what this brick building cost. It was built adjoining the old rock building so that a combination of the two buildings could be used for school purposes. The first high school graduation class was in the spring of 1889, and the records do show that in 1904 the 11th grade was added, and in 1906, the 12th grade was added, giving Hanover a four-year high school. Until 1908, the principal of the high school taught all of the high school classes, but because of the increasing enrollment, it was decided to add an additional teacher, and in 1911, another teacher was added. When the additional teachers were added, the upper part of the stone building was connected to the brick building, and some of the classes were held there. However, enrollments kept increasing, and in 1928 the present high school and grade school building was built at a cost of $80,000.00.
    In 1921, a home economics class was started in a building just west of the new brick building, and since torn down. Also, when the new building that is now in use was completed in 1929, a course in industrial arts was added, then in 1936, with more farm boys coming to high school, vocational agriculture was added and as these courses were added, additional teachers were needed. However, growing pains in the district made the present building too small, and, in 1955, a new gymnasium was added, and the one in the building built in 1929 was made into additional class rooms for high school purposes.
    Then in 1963, the Kansas Legislature passed the unification bill forcing all the smaller schools to unify, and a committee of six was elected in Washington County to establish and consolidate the schools of the county. When this was completed, Hanover found itself in a district that was made of the Hollenberg, Hanover, Barnes, part of Greenleaf, Linn and Palmer grade and high schools. In our district, two high school centers were established, one at Hanover and one at Linn, with the grade schools remaining as they were before the consolidation. Where we had ten high schools before, we now have five in the county, increasing the enrollment in each high school.
    This year the high school enrollment is 178, and the grade school 125, with 23 instructors, 18 in the high school and five, including the kindergarten department, in the grades.
    Thus, after 100 years, we have come from a one-teacher school, teaching the three R's, Readin, Ritin, and Rithmatic, to a modern school, offering all the subjects that are available to high school students.
    A great deal larger amount of material was available to the committee preparing this school history, but it was decided to condense it somewhat and include what we considered the most important.
    Since 1889, when the first class graduated and including the 1969 class, 1,189 have received their high school diplomas from Hanover High.

ST. JOHN'S CATHOLIC CHURCH AND SCHOOL

    In October, 1869, Rev. Father Joseph Remmele, a Catholic Missionary stationed at St. Mary's, Kansas, came to Hanover and offered the First Holy Sacrifice of the Mass in Hanover, or as far as can be ascertained, the first Mass to be offered in Washington, Clay or Cloud Counties. Eight Catholic families were all the missionary could find in the Hanover territory at that time. From this humble start 101 years ago, St. John the Baptist Catholic Church here has grown to a membership today of some 800 with church property valued at several hundred thousand dollars. St. John's Catholic Church is the oldest Catholic Church in the Diocese of Salina.
    Nothing definite is known of subsequent visits of Father Remmele in Hanover during the remainder of 1868 and 1869. However, in 1869, Father Sweitberg de Martean of the order of St. Benedict began attending to the spiritual welfare of Hanover Catholic people, coming here from Seneca, and by 1870, the congregation numbered over 20 families.
    Father Sweitberg built the first Church here in 1870. It was a small frame building measuring 20 by 40 feet. This Church, which was enlarged in 1876, served the congregation until 1880. In April, 1874, Father A. M. Weikman left Hanover in June, 1876, and was succeeded by Rev. Father John H. Pichler, who took charge in July , 1876. Father Pichler believed that the biggest asset to any Catholic congregation was a Catholic School, and at the start of his career in Hanover, he established a Catholic school, which was the second such school to be opened within the limits of the present Diocese of Salina. The School, conducted by Sister Adelaide, was held in the Sister's home, on the present Church grounds and which at that time also served as the rectory for the pastor. The school was conducted in one room of the house.
    In 1882-1883, a separate school building was built of stone, at a cost of $8,000.00, with classes starting on September 3, 1863, with an enrollment of nearly 100 pupils. This school, with various improvements added, served until 1931, when the present building was built by Rt. Rev. Monsignor Wm. Shellberg. Various phases marked the building of the present large stone church. At first, Father Pichler doubled the size of the old frame church in the summer of 1876, and in 1878 began work on the present limestone building. The dimensions then were set at 50 by 120 by 20 feet. On May 2, 1878, the first load of stone was delivered, and in August of the same year, the foundation was excavated, with the cornerstone laid by Father Pichler in August, 1878.
    On October 4, 1880, the church was dedicated by the Most Rev. Louis M. Fink, Bishop of Leavenworth. In 1883, the transcripts (or wings) were added to the church, providing more room so the seating capacity was 700. In 1884, a stone Rectory was built by Father Pichler, which served until 1939, when it was replaced by the present rectory, built by Rev. Father Henry J. Gesenhues. In 1887, Father Pichler was replaced by Rev. Father Nicholas Nensius. Assisting him was Rev. Father F. Havelka, who attended the missions at Lanham and Morrowville.
    During Father Pichler's pastorate here in 1884, he acquired a five acre tract of land northeast of Hanover to establish the present St. John's cemetery. Rt. Rev. Monsignor Wm. Shellberg was assigned to St. John's on May 1, 1890. For 45 years Monsignor Shellberg served St. John's, completing and beautifying the church cemetery and other property. His first task was to have the interior of the church plastered and decorated, the present main altar and the side altars were installed, as also were the present art glass windows and the hand carved wood stations of the cross. The pipe organ was also installed and many additions to the liturgical equipment of the church, as well as the installation of the present pews. He also added three more acres to the cemetery, planted many large cedar trees, now on the cemetery and erected the outdoor altar and crucifixion group at the cemetery. The crowning achievement of Monsignor Shellberg's pastorate here was the completion of the present modern school building.
    Following the death of Monsignor Shellberg, Father Joseph OSB of Atcheson served as substitute pastor until August 25, 1925, when Father Chas. Menig came here as pastor. In July, 1936, Father Menig was transferred to Angelus, Kansas, and on August 2, 1936, Monsignor Henry J. Gesenhues assumed the pastoral duties of St. John's Catholic church. Monsignor Gesenhues built the present rectory in 1939. This was followed in 1940 by the rewiring of the church, installing new lights, built the beautiful Grotto of the Blessed Virgin adjoining the church on the north.
    In 1944, the home of Dr. F. H. Rhoades was purchased as a Sisters' residence while a new convent was being built. Monsignor Gesenhues installed the tower clock to serve as a memorial to the men and women who served our country in World War II. Social rooms in the school basement were added in 1947. One more acre of land was added to the cemetery. Also, a new electronic organ was installed. Extensive improvement decorating and painting work was done in the church, including a rubber tile floor, redecorating walls, ceiling and altars, some new lights were added, painting of the steeples and roof of the church property. In addition, Father Henry also built new outside entrances to both wings of the church. After Monsignor Henry's death, a new pastor, Father Hughes, was installed in May, 1962.
    During the time of Father Hughes, the school, originally built when Monsignor Shellberg was pastor in 1931, was renovated and enlarged to include four more class rooms, a gym and kitchen area, at the cost of $175,000.00.
    Following the direction and inspiration of Vatican II, Father Hughes inaugurated one of the most significant steps forward in religious education in the history of the church in establishing high school religion classes taught and moderated by lay members of the parish. Thus began an era of adult religious education, the success or failure of which will determine the influence of the church in the world in the centuries to come.
    Father Hughes served the parish from May, 1962, until September, 1967. Father William Killian, the present pastor of St. John 's Catholic church was installed in 1967.

LUTHERAN CHURCH HISTORY

    The Zion Evangelical Lutheran Congregation was organized in the year 1874, but first documents are dated September 1, 1875, on which date a constitution was adopted and the following members were elected the first officers: Friedrich Runge, president; August Jaedicke, secretary; Hein- rich Roever, treasurer; Christian Schuette, Bernard Wulff and Heinrich Riggert, councilmen.
    A charter for the organization was granted by the secretary of the State of Kansas, Thomas H. Cavanaugh, on September 2, 1875, under the name of Evangelisch Lutherische Kirchengemeinde of Hanover, Washington County, Kansas. This charter was extended, on October 19, 1932, and again in 1948 it was renewed for a period of fifty years. On May 25, 1876, the charter of the congregation was recorded at Washington, Kansas.
    At a meeting held September 1, 1875, three members of the congregation were elected as a committee for building a church. Four lots were donated by the noble founder of Hanover, the Honorable G. Hollenberg, who came to this section of Kansas in 1857. This gentleman had also left in his will a gift of $350 for the installation of a bronze bell weighing 550 pounds. After the fire on the eve of Easter, 1909, this bell was sent off and recast at the expense of Mrs. Hollenberg, who at this time had remarried to Wm. Kalhoefer. The first (south) part of the church was not finished until 1876. Due to the loss of many valuable papers in the fire mentioned above, the cost of the first church is not known.
    In 1884, during the pastorate of Pastor Groenmiller, the north addition to the church, with the tower, was built. After the destructive fire of Easter, 1909, which was due to a bolt of lightning, the church was rebuilt. It was widened ten feet at a cost of $5,100, and $750 for pews, altar and chancel. Mr. Jacob Gundelfinger donated the pipe organ.
    In 1874 and 1875, the congregation was temporarily served by Pastors Pfeifer and Mathias of the Missouri Synod. On July 2, 1877, a call was extended to Pastor J. C. Groenmiller of Falls City, Nebraska, a member of the General Synod of the Lutheran church, who served the congregation 12 years until 1899. Pastor Groenmiller, being a veteran of the Civil War, and drawing a pension, built his own parsonage on six lots adjoining the church property on the east, the house where Leonard Doebele lives now. He also bought the two lots south of the original church property and built a small schoolhouse on them. He resold them with the schoolhouse to the congregation in 1899. The congregation built a parsonage on these lots shortly afterwards at a cost of $800. In 1917, the ad- joining Runge property was acquired for $1,000, and in 1928, the congregation fell heir to the property of Mrs. Johanna Levien, located west of the church, right across the street. This house has been completely remodeled and serves as parsonage now. The property of the congregation consists of a whole city block, or really half of two city blocks.
    After Pastor Groenmiller, who also founded congregations at Lanham, near Washington, and at Greenleaf, Kansas, and who, in 1904 received the honorary title of Doctor of Divinity from Midland College, the following pastors served our congregation: J. Bond, 1889-1891; C. Rumpf, 1891-1892; L. Shabinger, 1892-1894; J. C. Rudulph, 1894-1897; (who later located as a physician in Hanover); Julius Paetznick, 1897-1900; Karl Klinger, 1900-1937; C. R. Goldenstein, 1937-1946; O. K. Oelke, 1946- 1950; Earl Heuser, 1950-1953; Henry Moyer, 1954- 1957; P. O. Anderson, 1957-1963, and our present pastor, Stanley Leaf, with his wife, Norma, and three children, Mike, Dan and Erin, came in the fall of 1963. During the times we were without a pastor, the pulpit was filled by seminary students or personnel from Central Seminary at Fremont, Nebraska, or by neighboring pastors.
    The Sunday after Easter, 1909, when our church burned, Pastor Klinger preached his first sermon at Silvercliff, about twelve miles northwest of Hanover, where nine members of the Lutheran faith had bought a church building of the remaining members of a former Methodist congregation. Hanover Lutheran ministers continued serving Silvercliff until 1954 when connections with the congregation were dissolved. Some of their members joined nearby churches, and the rest make up the Redeemer Church of Hollenberg. For the past few years, Pastor Leaf has been serving the Hollenberg church.
    Up to the year 1917, the time the congregation presented Pastor Klinger with a new Chevrolet for his birthday, he made the trips to Silvercliff with a horse and buggy in a true Missionary spirit, with the help of a willing member living half way, who finished the last half of the journey with his own team whenever the roads were to bad and heavy for old dobbin.
    In 1903, Pastor Klinger founded the first Women's Missionary Society of the Synod in Hanover. It has existed ever since and has always contributed well towards foreign missions and towards the institutions of the church and toward the church itself. At present, it is known as the Lutheran Church Women, and is divided into two groups, one meeting the first Monday evening of each month, and the other the third Friday afternoon of each month, and has a membership of twenty-nine.
    The Sunday School enrollment is 105. Summer School is held every summer after the public schools are closed.
    The Senior Luther League came into existence during Rev. Goldenstein's pastorate, and has always been an active organization. Meetings are held twice a month, the first Wednesday of each month is Bible Study conducted by Pastor Leaf, and the third Wednesday evening the group takes charge with devotions, topic and recreation. The present sponsors are Mr. and Mrs. Keith Allerheiligen, Dennis Allerheiligen and pastor Leaf.
    In 1947, a Junior League was organized under the direction of Pastor Oelke, and at the present has a membership of 18, and the leaders are Mrs. Hugo Cumro and Mrs. Kermit Rickenberg.
    The Lutheran Brotherhood was organized in 1952. Since the church merger the organization is known as the Lutheran Church Men. It is a small group, but an active one.
    In 1941, after several congregational meetings, it was resolved to tear down the old schoolhouse and use the material for the purpose of adding a second story to the present parsonage. The Levien house was completely remodeled and modernized, and a new gas furnace installed. The old parsonage was then remodeled for parish house purposes, and serves as a place of meeting for the Sunday School, as well as meeting place for the organizations. In 1952, the old parish hall was remodeled again, and an addition built to provide for the many church activities.
    In 1948, the church was beautified by the addition of beautiful Art windows, all memorials. In 1955, the church building underwent extensive repair and redecoration. The rock front was cleaned and polished, the interior was repaired and painted. In 1957, a Wurlitzer electric organ was purchased. In 1962, another project was completed, with rebuilding and enlarging the altar platform, carpeting it and also laying carpet down the center aisle, the side aisles and the stairway, and also tiling the entrance hall. And hanging new inside and outside doors.
    We are privileged to have with us Miss Bertha Koenig, a retired missionary from Liberia, Africa, and a daughter of the local congregation. Miss Koenig served as a missionary for 39 years, and was sent to Liberia, Africa, in 1916, and retired in 1956.
    Zion Lutheran Church, along with 10 other Lutheran churches in this area began a study of Parish Development about two and a half years ago. This study was made to keep the churches abreast of the changing population and economic status of this area. The goal was to make full services available to all the churches regardless of size of congregation.
    The eleven churches reached an agreement on combined Pastoral services and on January 1,1969, formed an organization known as the Lutheran Parish Council of North Central Kansas.

HISTORY OF THE EVANGELICAL CHURCH

EVANGELICAL UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH

UNITED METHODIST CHURCH

    The Evangelical Church had established a Mision at Holton, Kansas, and in 1862, Rev. Wm. Uber of the Mission traveled west and north as far as Washington County, preaching the gospel where- ever he found the opportunity.
    At this time he found entrance in the homes of several German speaking people near the village of Hanover. However, the work was not organized until 1870, when Rev. J. Schesser first came here. There were nine charter members, namely -- Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Werner, Mr. and Mrs. Bartley Werner, Mr. and Mrs. August Heil, Mr. and Mrs. Jacob GundeIfinger and Mrs. Barbara GundeIfinger, a widow who later married Mr. August Luebke.
    From this small beginning, by the zeal and efforts of the members, this small group grew steadily in numbers and results. A Sunday School was immediately organized, with Jacob Werner as the first superintendent. Bible Study was carried on each Sunday, with Bartley Werner, Exhorter. Circuit preachers came when possible, and worship services were held in the homes and later in the schoolhouse. However, in the early years, the responsibility of the Lord's work was on the Lay Leaders. Jacob Werner was elected Class Leader, and prayer meetings were held regularly, family worship was a part of daily living.
    In 1878, it was decided to erect a small church building, and through the efforts of the members, donations of money and labor made it possible to build the small brick church in the south part of Hanover. It was finished and dedicated to the worship of the Lord in October, 1879, and all services were in the German language.
    When the corner stone for the church was laid, Rev. W. Heiser of Riley County, was the master of ceremonies, and in the box was deposited a beautiful copy of the Bible, church discipline, a hymn book, Sunday School books, periodicals, magazines and various copies of their religious papers, also a copy of the Hanover Democrat.
    For forty years services were held in the little brick church, at first with itinerant preachers and later the minister sharing time with Washington. In 1918, the Evangelical Church and the Methodist Church, who had erected a church in Hanover in 1895, merged, and the Methodist congregation joined with the Evangelical congregation, and the present building, now occupied, was purchased from the Methodist church.
    In 1916, the Womens Missionary Society was organized along with all the correlative organiza- tions, and is today a very active part of the church. In 1922, a Ladies Aid Society was organized, and to this group, while small in number, must be given the credit for most of the improvements made on the church building and parsonage, they have worked hard, but their results have been worth the effort.
    In 1946, the Evangelical church and the United Brethren Church in Christ merged, and the name Evangelical United Brethren Church was chosen.
    In 1919, the present parsonage was purchased, and from then until the merger with the United Brethren church we had a full time minister, but with the merger, we divided time with the rural E.U.B. Church at Throop, and when it was closed, we shared time with the Greenleaf E. U .B. church, and that is the order of service today, with the minister living in Hanover.
    After several years of discussion and planning, the Evangelical United Brethren Church and the Methodist Church merged in 1968, and the name of United Methodist Church was chosen, so after 100 years we are again Methodists, for if the German Methodists of Pennsylvania had been able to receive German services, the Evangelical church would never have been organized.
    Ministers who have served the Zion Hanover Evangelical Church, Evangelical United Brethren and United Methodist Church are: 1862, William Uber; 1866, G. W. Bugh; 1867-68, William Fulgate, 1869-70, E. J. Troyer; 1871, P. Fricker; 1872, J. Schesser; 1873, P. Fricker; 1874, J. Emmel; 1875, H. Toedman; 1876, W. Meier; 1877, Carl Buchel; 1878-80, C. Brandt; 1881-83, D. R. Zeller; 1883-86, H. Toedman; 1886-89, Wm. Daeschner; 1889, M. Manshardt; 1890-93, R. R. Brand; 1893-96, L. E. Beecher; 1896-99, H. W. Hartman; 1899-01, W. F. Schuerman; 1901-06, M. W. Plettner; 1906-09, F. C. Dissinger; 1909-11, E. H. Wendland; 1911-13, F. W. Wendland; 1913-16, B. H. Hobbs; 1916-19, 0. J . Sheldon; 1919-22, S. D. Hower; 1922-26, J. J. Hoffman; 1926-29, H. L. Price; 1929-31, F. W. West; 1931-34, Edward Daeschner; 1934-42, F. E. Wendland; 1942-44, A. Hoerman; 1944-46, John Haber; 1946-51, Paul Hett; 1951-57, Clarence Haber; 1957- 59, Curtis Minter; 1959-64, C. O. Burgert; 1964-67, Lawrence Lee; 1967, H. Marvin Bower.

CLEMENT T. FARRELL POST NO. 306
THE AMERICAN LEGION

    On the evening of February 26, 1921, a group of ex-service men met at the City Hall in Hanover, Kansas, and formally organized an American Legion post.
    They named it Clement T. Farrell, in honor of the first service man from this community to be killed in action during World War I. The following officers were elected: Commander--H. K. Rowland; Vice-Commander--George Imming; Adjutant--L. R. Kramer; Finance Officer--J .P. Kilkenny; Historian--Anthony Overwald; Master-at-Arms--August Ebeling.
    The Charter Members were: Walter Meyer, Edward C. Luehring, John D. Meyer, Anthony Overwald, Ludwig Koehler, Luther Stiles, Henry Zumbahlen, William Ruhkamp, William Kloppenberg, Wm. H. Ellis, Frank Soder, August Ebeling, H. K. Rowland, George Imming and John Richardson.
    During the early days of its existence, meeting rooms were furnished free of charge by the City, and at various times by other interested of business establishments. Income was derived chiefly from local contributions, frequently planned Turkey and Duck Shoots, Dances, Card Parties, etc. The officers and committees who served so untiringly and unselfishly during those 'growing pain' days are to be commended for their display of initiative, determination and foresight.
    These men were also very conservative. Old records reveal the fact that whenever a few hundred dollars accumulated in the treasury, the membership would vote unanimously to invest the money in War Bonds. Without this kind of planning and skillful management throughout the years, the present beautiful Post Home would still be 'just a dream'.
    The programs sponsored by the American Legion were then, and are today, basically the same. Expansions in certain areas to meet current demands and revisions and/or newly enacted legislation, have caused some changes over the years. From the very beginning, The American Legion has been an organization dedicated to serve America and to make our communities better places in which to live.
    The local post sponsors many worthwhile community projects such as: Baseball Teams, Boy's State, Boy Scouts, Swimming Meets, Scholarships, County Government Day, Junior Miss Contest, Red Cross Blood Program. It contributes monetarily to the numerous 'fund drives' sponsored either locally, state-wide or nation-wide. It donated a considerable amount to the Hanover Hospital for the purchase of equipment. In addition, the post has a sizeable investment in such equipment as hospital beds, wheel chairs, walkers and crutches which they loan without charge to anyone in and around the community if and when the need arises.
    Membership in the local Post has grown from the original 15 in 1921, to 209 in 1969.
    Nationally, The American Legion was founded in Paris, France, March 15-17, 1919 by veterans of World War I, still in uniform. Col. Teddy Roosevelt, Jr., is credited with the germ of the idea from which this organization sprang. Today its memberbership numbers over 2-1/2 million veterans. Coincidentally, this year of 1969 marks the 50th Anniversary of the American Legion as well as the 100th Anniversary of the City of Hanover.
    Clement T. Farrell Post No.306 extends a warm welcome to all eligible servicemen and veterans, especially those of the Vietnam Period. By joining your home town Post you will: (1) Become acquainted with other veterans, both of the Vietnam era and past wars. (2) Have the opportunity of making many new friends in a congenial atmosphere. (3) Have immediate access to a nationwide network of service officers who are trained in all aspects of veterans' programs administered by the Veterans Administration and other government agencies. (4) Become a part of a civilian organization which is backing in every possible way the fight for freedom for all people. (5) Be on a team which supports any endeavor to promote progress for our town and community and the enrichment of the lives of all its citizens.

AMERICAN LEGION AUXILIARY HISTORY

    The American Legion Auxiliary was first organized in October, 1922. Some years later it was disbanded and was not reorganized until 1950 with a charter membership of nineteen, who were Clara Allerheiligen, Eda Allerheiligan, Martha Allerheiligan, Hazel Callender, Carolyn Martin, Grace Mueller, Marge Moffitt, Bernita Portman, Loretta Schroeder, Eleanor Wieden, Evelyn Fairbanks, Anna Mae Habr, Mae Frauenfelder, Elmyra Loges, Iola Luehring, Francis Poell, Elizabeth Schultz, Arlene Wieden and Gladys Wilkinson. Eleanor Wieden served as first president, and there have been nine different presidents since then.
    The first year, and every year since, they have decorated and entered a float with the American Legion in the "Days of '49 parade".
    Each year they have given money or gifts to the gift shop at the Veterans Hospital at Topeka, and each Christmas, packages of cookies and candy are sent to service men from this area.
    Veteran made poppies are distributed each year, and all veterans' graves are decorated for Memorial Day, and since 1960, also the graves of the Auxiliary members. Contributions are made to all worthwhile drives in the community. A small gift or card is sent to the Gold Star Mothers on Mothers' Day.
    In 1953, the Auxiliary purchased a wheel chair for community use, and gave their first books to the Hanover Library for dedication. They also gave a teeter-totter and slippery-slide for the city park. 1953 was the first year a girl was sponsored for Girls State. The membership had now grown to 40. In 1954, they assumed the task of serving dinners to the bands from Fort Riley and Topeka who marched in the "Days of '49" parades and have continued this each year.
    Carpet rags have been collected and sent to Wadsworth Hospital, and the Unit has ordered and sold many rugs made by the Veterans.
    In 1955, the project was helping the Pony Express station secure show cases and picnic tables, and to help gather pioneer articles and to assist in labeling them. A year later they assumed the duties of Civil Defence and served as ground observers until this practice was discontinued.
    In the intervening years, the membership has grown to 78. Along with the American Legion, they moved into the new Post home, built by the American Legion this past year. Some new kitchen equipment has been purchased, to better serve the community, which uses the facilities for larger gatherings.
    This past year a Girls Scout troop was organized with 45 enthusiastic members. For the past 19 years the Auxiliary has been a warm, closely knit organization that has fulfilled their wish to be of use to their community. Officers at present are: Mrs. Helen Greiveldinger, president; Marge Harder, vice-president; Grace Mueller, secretary; Marjorie Leis, treasurer; Ellen Meyn, chaplain; Margaret Schwartz, Sergeant-at-Arms; Florence Kloppenberg, historian.

KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS

    The local Hanover Council No.1743 is a subordinate Council of the Kansas State Council and the Supreme Council. It has a membership of 181 men this centennial year. It was chartered May 24, 1914 by the following brother Knights: Reverend Wm. Schellberg, Edward Cudahy, Ben Dingman, John Dingman, A. F. Flaherty, Thomas Graham, Joseph Grancer, J. C. Greiveldinger, Henry Havekorst, Pat Hellse, Richard Knuffke, John Ley, F. C. Meerian, Martin Meerian, Jr., L. A. Mullen, J. T. Murphy, T. H. Murphy, Joseph Schuessler, John J. Sedlacek, Charles Seeberger, Max H. Seeberger, John Pejsa, A. A. Poell, Henry Roeder, Edward Rudkins, Albert Sheetz, Adolph Triska, Frank Triska, Joseph Weiler and John F. White.
    It has many Loyal Sons who have distinguished themselves in work for their church, community and nation. Many have served their community working at widely different occupations and professions, while others have made the supreme sacrifice for our country in times of war. One member, Dr. Leo Bongers, Hanover Dental Surgeon, recently ascended to Kansas' highest office as State Deputy (July, 1966 to July, 1968) and led our Order with much distinction. New significant statewide programs instituted at that time were the Kansas Retarded Childrens Program, and the Kansas Public and Parochial High School Oratorical Program.
    The Hanover Council is headed in this centennial year by an energetic young leader, Mr. Donald Landoll, as Grand Knight. Don is owner-manager of the Landoll Manufacturing Company of Marys- ville, Kansas.
    The district is captained by a Hanover Council member, Mr. John Hynek, Jr., farmer-stockman, and District deputy. District 11 is composed of the following four cities and their attached rural areas: Marysville, Seneca, Axtell and Hanover.

HISTORY OF THE HANOVER PUBLIC LIBRARY

    Lack of books for summer reading for the young people of Hanover was an incentive for the three year old Friendship Home Demonstration Unit to think seriously about a city library. The idea was discussed at many meetings before it actually became a reality. In July, 1953, the Friendship Unit with the permission of the city council, started their weekly collections in the city hall, taking any and all donations of books and cash. Space in the north part of the city hall was donated for the library by the city.
    From then on, the Unit left no stone unturned, and got cooperation in the form of labor, money and books from many community resources. The city council not only furnished the space, but the light and heat. They also provided funds to buy lumber for bookshelves. The Hanover Future Farmers built them under the guidance of their councilor, Mr. Alvin Lampe. The American Legion also helped finance it, and the Auxiliary gave books as memorials to local soldiers killed in the war.
    Mr. Leo Dieker, editor of the Hanover News, backed the Unit and the library project from the start, gave publicity and urged readers to support it with cash and books. Nearby Units gave magazine subscriptions. Comfortable furniture was donated by local families.
    To earn money for purchasing supplies and new books, the Unit gave bake sales, ice cream socials and card parties. And on January 16, 1954, the library was opened to the public, with members of the Friendship Unit taking their turns working and keeping the library open two afternoons a week, Wednesday and Saturday.
    The members of the Unit, at the time of the library organization, were: Mrs. William Kloppenberg, Mrs. Alvin Lampe, Mrs. Jack Haley, Mrs. Fred Loges, Jr., Mrs. Elmer Loges, Mrs. Clarence Schwartz, Mrs. Arthur Poell, Mrs. Richard Meerian, and Mrs. Walter Roever.
    In June, 1955, Marilyn Mueller, high school senior, was appointed by the Unit to serve as librarian.
    A temporary board of directors was also selected. They were: Mrs. Alfred Wieden, Mrs. William Kloppenberg, Rev. Clarence Haber, Mrs. Elwyn Dees, Mrs. Carl Frahm and Miss Geraldine Feighney. In the meantime, the Unit was working with Miss Zelia French, State Extension Librarian, Topeka, Kansas, and Miss Georgianna Smurthwaite, Kansas State Extension Council, Manhattan, Kansas, to convert the library into a city taxed organization. After many meetings with the city officials, the library was placed on the taxation rolls with a mill levy of .024.
    A regular board of directors was then appointed by the city council. They were: Mrs. Walter Roever, president; Mrs. Carl Frahm, vice-president Geraldine Feighney, secretary, and Mrs. Clara Neumann, treasurer. Other members of the board were: Mrs. Alvin Lampe, Mrs. Melvin Schultz and Miss Aurelia Seeberger.
    Three more high school senior girls were appointed librarians, Jeanette Frahm, in 1956, Barbara Roever, 1957, Eleanor Resch, 1958. Mrs. Walter Roever was appointed in 1960 and is still serving as librarian.
    In the early part of 1966, the library became a part of the North Central Kansas Library System, and is visited each month by the book van.
    The board members at present are: Mrs. Henry Greiveldinger, president; Mrs. Ray Landoll, vice- president; Miss Elizabeth Wilsman, secretary; Miss Lucile Jaedicke, treasurer; Mrs. Arthur Ebeling, Mrs. Clarence Schwartz, and Mrs. Louise Dieker.

THE HANOVER HOSPITAL STORY

    In 1947, Hanover people found themselves faced with a serious situation -- no doctor! The town's only practicing physician collapsed with a heart attack a few minutes after completing a surgical operation in a hospital in Beatrice, Nebraska. He was Dr. H. G. Hurtig, who came to Hanover in June of 1914 to establish his practice here.
    A year went by as Hanover people vainly attempted to get a young doctor to locate here to take care of the health of the people of the community. In December, 1948, the town's commercial organization, the Hanover Business Men's Club, called a series of public meetings to see what could be done. At these meetings, it was decided Hanover would have to provide hospital facilities in order to attract a doctor. Therefore, they also decided to establish a hospital district rather than raise funds for building modern medical facilities through voluntary investment.
    A committee of three men, Max H. Seeberger, A. C. Wurtz and Fredrick Mueller, was named to investigate all legal and other problems involved in establishing a district. An area extending four miles in each direction from Hanover was laid out. Sub-committees were named to contact all eligible voters in order to get the necessary signatures on a petition for the establishment of a hospital district. More than 80 percent of the eligible voters signed the petition. When the petition was approved by the County Commissioners of Washington County in March 1949, thus creating the hospital district, an election of a temporary board of directors was held. The following men were elected in May, 1949, to serve as the first permanent board: Max H. Seeberger, Edward Knedlik, Charles T . Schwartz, Cecil A. Jones and Wes Nespor.
    The board of directors was successful in persuading a young doctor to come to town. He was Dr. Daniel S. Roccaforte, age 27, a graduate of the medical school of Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska, who had practiced about two years in the Cornazzo Surgical Clinic in Omaha. He opened his office here March 1, 1949, and consulted with the board on plans for a clinic.
    During the ensuing months, numerous meetings were held, the first of which was for the purpose of selecting a suitable location. The lots owned by Ollie Turk were selected, west across the street from the northwest corner of the City Park. Mr. Turk offered these lots free of charge to the board. Architects and Engineers were contacted to determine the type, size and cost of a suitable building.
    On May 14, 1949, a Special Election was held to vote on a bond issue of $35,000. This carried by a vote of 448 to 176. Bids for construction of the building were received in August, 1949, and they ranged from $34,513 to $47,600. Low bidder was C. W. Strand of Marysville, Kansas, who was awarded the contract. 'Open House' was held March 13, 1950, and nearly 2,000 people inspected the new building. That day over $800 was donated to the hospital fund. The building is 38 feet by 59 feet, with a l0-bed hospital unit on the main floor. This includes operating room, two 3-bed surgical and medical wards, one 3-bed obstetrical ward and a single-bed isolation ward. In addition, are reception room, business office, nurses station, medical laboratory, nurses' dressing room, public rest room, bath, linen closet, drug closet, doctor's rest room and surgeon's dressing room
    On the lower floor is the kitchen, heating plant, offices, examination rooms and X-Ray department, reception room for patients and two dentist operating rooms with office.
    In August, 1958, it was proposed to construct an 'Addition to Hanover Hospital'. This was to be 36-1/2 feet long by 38 feet wide. In addition, a 16-1/2 foot wide ambulance driveway at the south end would be provided. The estimated cost to be $50,000, would provide all the facilities which the State Board of Health then required. Tax levy will be 1.75 to 1.80 mills.
    On November 14, 1958, voters approved the $50,000 Bond Issue by a vote of 321 to 115, and in April, 1959, it was announced that the Hospital Addition was scheduled to be completed by August 25, 1959, at a cost of $46,636.36, plus architects fees of 6%.
    The next phase in the development and expansion of Hanover's Hospital facility occured in May, 1965, when the voters gave approval, by a vote of 211 to 103, to authorize the issuance of Hospital District bonds in amount of $29,850. This money to be used to add more facilities in the lower floor clinic department, including accident emergency treatment room and the enlargement and improvement of the present spaces. Effective July 1, 1966, the Hanover Hospital was approved for care of patients under the Federal Medicare program.
    On April 18, 1967, the voters approved a Bond Issue of $198,500 to help finance a 33-bed long term care addition to the present 12-bed hospital by a vote of 357 to 332. Total cost to be $360,000, of which Federal funds in amount of $160,000 would be approved under the Hill-Burton Act, and $20,000 in voluntary donations. The new addition, to be constructed at the present hospital site, will increase the capacity of the hospital to a total of 49 beds for acute and long term care of patients. It is hopefully anticipated that work on this latest project will commence in the near future.
    Doctors who have practiced at the hospital, and their length of service are: Roccaforte, 1949-52; White, 1952-53; Haley, 1953-54; Roccaforte, 1954-55; Mowry, 1955-60; Berkley, 1963-64 and Warren, 1960 to the present time.
    The following statistics indicate the invaluable service rendered to the people of this community during the period from 1950 through 1968: Deliveries, 918; Surgery Patients, 3,782; Medical In- Patients, 5,351; Medical Clinic Patients, $73,900; Hospital Out-Patients, 4,372.
    Hanover is proud of its Hospital, and of the many people who donated so generously of their time, labor and financial assistance over the years. The result of these efforts truly exemplifies man's love and consideration for his neighbors.

HANOVER SWIMMING POOL

    The Hanover Swimming Pool was dedicated at 1 p.m., July 4, 1964. It is located in Veterans Memorial Park. No admission charge was made on this opening date, and everyone enjoyed a free swim. At 1 o'clock, the Hanover High School Band gave a 30 minute concert.
    At 1:30, the formal program opened with the Invocation by Rev. Lawrence Lee, pastor of the Evangelical United Brethren Church. This was followed by a dedication speech by Dr. Leo V. Bongers, who represented the Hanover City Mayor and Council, and remarks by Very Rev. Joseph E. Hughes VF, pastor of St. John's Catholic Church. The benediction was given by Rev. Stanley Leaf, pastor of Zion Lutheran Church, City. Clement T. Farrell Post 306 the American Legion, furnished the Color Guard. Connie Schroeder was crowned queen of the Swimming Pool, having received the largest number of votes cast by Hanover people. She officiated at the cutting of the ribbon which opened the pool to the public and the big splash that followed.
    The L-shaped pool features heated water for cool days and nights. The water measures from 3 feet to 10-1/2 feet. Two separately fenced wading pools are on the south end. A concrete sun deck is located on the west side. The bath house with dressing and shower rooms for ladies and men and clothes checking facilities is located on the south side.
    The pool was built by Pascal P. Paddock Co. of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The 16-acre park is the location for the pool and the building of the pool was financed by a $69,000 bond issue.

THE UNITED STATES POST OFFICE

    United States Post Office in Hanover was dedicated on Saturday, May 27, 1961, in special ceremonies sponsored by the Hanover Chamber of Commerce. Congressman Wm. H. Avery and Robert Welch, Field Service Officer, Wichita Regional Post Office Department, were the guest speakers. A flag, formerly flown over the United States Post Office Department, Washington, D. C., was presented by Congressman Avery. The local pastors, Rt. Rev. Monsignor Henry Gessenhues, Rev. C. O. Burgert and Rev. P. O. Anderson, also participated in the ceremony. George Gerardy was the Postmaster and is still serving in that capacity.

THE HANOVER WOMAN'S CLUB

    On September 24, 1939, twenty-six Hanover women, interested in organizing a study club, met in the Hanover high school building. Mrs. H. G. Hurtig, acting president, called the meeting to order. Mrs. John Merk served as acting secretary. Mrs. C. Crum, of Marysville, organizer for First District, Kansas Federation of Women's Clubs, was present to explain the process of organization, and named the several departments from which study subjects might be selected.
    Officers elected that day were: Mrs. C. R. Goldenstein, president; Mrs. H. G. Hurtig, vice-president; Mrs. M. S. Kaufman, secretary and Mrs. Anna Teply, treasurer.
    Twenty-three women signed as charter members: Mrs. C. R. Goldenstein, Mrs. H. G. Hurtig, Mrs. M. S. Kaufman, Mrs. Anna Teply, Mrs. George Scott, Mrs. Carl Hoffman, Mrs. George Mueller, Mrs. F. B. Imming, Mrs. L. L. Iman, Mrs. Frank Bohning, Mrs. G. F. Meyn, Mrs. August Jaedicke, Jr., Mrs. Fred Rhoades, Mrs. J. B. Clapp, Mrs. W. G. Allerheiligan, Mrs. Charles T. Schwartz, Mrs. Eugene Rowland, Mrs. J. J. Weigand, Mrs. F. E. Wendland, Mary Ann Johnson, Helen Wroten, Mrs. John Merk and Aurelia Seeberger.
    The new club adopted the name "Hanover Woman's Study Club"; its motto, "Deeds, Not Dreams"; club song, "America the Beautiful"; colors, red and white, and club flower, the red carnation.
    The first meetings were held in the Home Economics rooms in the high school basement, and the club purchased a piano for their own use, which they later donated to the school; but, during the war, some meetings were held in the Red Cross rooms, where the members sewed for the Red Cross making 15,000 dressings and 69 pillows, 17 inches by 17 inches.
    At the very beginning, the Hanover Women's Club affiliated with the district, state and national organizations, and has consistently, through the years, planned its work in accordance with GFWC objectives. It is also affiliated with the Washington County Federation, one of only four county federations in the state, and entertains the county meeting every fourth year.
    The club sponsored the First War Loan drive, when a total of $40,125.00 was raised. In 1944, they sponsored a Hallowe'en town teen party, which was so successful that they continued it for several years. In 1955, they were instrumental in getting the town, with the cooperation of the Business Men's Club and the cooperation of the American Legion, to give a community Hallowe'en party, with prizes offered for the best costumes and window paintings. There were movies and treats for grade school children, and a dance and treats for teenagers. Some years later, the Woman's Club substituted Tricks or Treats for UNICEF, raising $75.51 that first year.
    Another project was financing the first Girl State candidate from Hanover. The club members have sponsored solicitation for Kansas Children's Service League, the Heart Fund, UNICEF; sponsored a music student to the annual KFWC Music Auditions; the Litter Bug Poster Contest, had members in the Literature and Drama contest and sponsored students to the KFWC Citizenship contest. They also sponsored an entrant in the Washington County Jaycees Junior Miss contest in 1968, Barbara Bruna, who won the County Junior Miss title.
    Each year they entertain Hanover's Senior Citizens at a party in the spring. They also enter a float in the Days of '49 parade each year.
    The club has made cash donations to many worthwhile projects; when the Hanover clinic became a reality, the club donated $50.00 to it; they also gave several food showers for it.
    Two books were given to the library in memory of past presidents, Mrs. J. B. Clapp and Mrs. H. G. Hurtig; made gifts of carpet rags and other items to Veterans; annual cash gifts to the Music Talent fund, the Red Cross, Cancer Fund, March of Dimes, Childrens' Service League, TB Christmas Seals and Heart fund.
    The members assisted with the first Mobile X-Ray unit's visit, and has promoted Driver's Education in the local schools.
    A prized historical memento is a walnut gavel made by Mr. Vernon Resch from wood from Kansas' first State Governor's mansion at Lecompton, and given to the club by Dr. and Mrs. Mowery, and Mr. and Mrs. Resch.
    The club has given First District one past president, Mrs. Carl Frahm, a corresponding secretary, Mrs. Robert Springer, and has a member on the District Board, in the person of Miss Marcella Schwartz, First District Chairman of Conservation. In 1967, during the presidency of Mrs. Frahm, the club entertained the First District convention in Hanover.
    In addition, donations have been made to KFWC's Scholarship Loan fund; to a fund for improvement of the Community Ball Park and to the city library.
    In all, Hanover Women's Club has, since its inception in 1939, stood "on call" to help out wherever there was a community or Federation need. Their latest project is working with other community organizations to improve the City Hall. All in all, the club concentrates on living up to its motto, "Deeds, Not Dreams".

FAMOUS MEN

August Jaedicke
   In recounting the history of Hanover, the name of August Jaedicke will ever occupy a prominent and honored place. He was among the most honorable of those valuable citizens who have sought the American shores from across the Atlantic.
    Frederick August Jaedicke was born March 5, 1831, in Guben, Prussia, Germany. In 1854, he emigrated with his family from Frankfort on the Oder to New York, settling for a time at Buffalo, New York, later going westward to Leavenworth, Kansas.
    He was one of a party who joined the overland trek to Pike's Peake during the Gold Rush, but, when the first few shovelfuls of dirt turned over yielded nothing more exciting than dirt, he decided to "return to civilization" and headed back to Leavenworth.
    He and William Kalhoefer were two of the first settlers on the Hanover townsite, and together they started a small store. Before long Mr. Jaedicke was able to buyout his partner's interest.
    In 1879, he erected the town's first brick business building, a 30 x 80 foot structure in which he carried on his business with unusual success until 1889, thus completing twenty years in the mercantile business, having opened his first store in 1868.
    He headed a movement to organize the Hanover State Bank, of which he was chosen president, and his son, August Jaedicke, Jr., cashier.
    Mr. Jaedicke was one of the original members of the Lutheran church, and assisted by a most liberal contribution in erecting the church building. He was also active in the organization of Das Deutsche Maenner Verein.
    When the city of Hanover was incorporated, he was elected an alderman, but, being postmaster, could not accept the position.

Judge William Kalhoefer
   A native of the principality of Waldeck, Germany, Judge Kalhoefer was born April 15, 1829. At the age of twenty years, he entered the army, and later was Inspector or Overseer of different large estates in different parts of Germany, holding this position for seven or eight years.
    In 1854, Mr. Kalhoefer determined upon emigrating to America, and not long after his arrival, entered the employ of the government contractors who were making surveys, and in the pursuance of his duties, traveled over a large portion of the West, in Wisconsin, Minnesota and Dakota. He came to America entirely unacquainted with the English language, but by diligent study and practice, soon made himself master of it.
    He set foot upon the soil of Kansas as early as 1859, stopping first in Leavenworth, where he was engaged in trade, and where he made his headquarters nine years. As one of the pioneer settlers of Kansas, Judge Kalhoefer camped out upon the present site of the city of Leavenworth, when Indians and wild animals were plentiful. In company with August Jaedicke, he put up the first house erected within the town limits of Hanover, and erected the first store of general merchandise at the corner of the public square when but few people had settled in this vicinity. After two years, they sold out, and Mr. Kalhoefer became interested in real estate, including both town and farm lands. At the same time, also, he turned his attention largely to agricultural pursuits. He was the owner of fully 1,000 acres of land, about 600 of which were brought to a good state of cultivation.
    Mr. Kalhoefer was honored with all the offices he would accept, being first made Justice of Peace in 1869, Township Trustee in 1870, and Probate Judge in 1871. In 1874, he was elected Mayor of the city, which office he held for a period of eight years. He was Assessor of a territory thirteen miles square, in 1871, when the majority of the people lived in dugouts in deep ravines. In order to find them he had to go to a high hill and search for the smoke arising from their chimneys at breakfast time. Many of them were so discouraged that they intended leaving the country, but Judge Kalhoefer prevailed upon them to remain, and many of them became wealthy men.
    For two years Judge Kalhoefer presided over the Probate Court, and he served as Justice of Peace for six years. He was instrumental in organizing the Lutheran Church here, and himself framed the by-laws. He was one of the most active members, leading the work of erecting the church edifice, was chairman of the building committee, and did most of the work of collecting, with the assistance of his brother-in-law, Mr. Fred Brockmeyer. He declined the official positions he was offered in the church, preferring to leave these to younger men. He assisted in establishing a Masonic lodge and a lodge of the I.O.O.F., and was always a defender of their principles. He organized the Washington County Emigration Society, of which he was made president, also the Washington County Coal and Mining Company, holding the same office in connection with this. He likewise organized the Atchison, Waterville and Hanover Railroad Company, serving as President, and also the Salina, Lincoln and Fremont Railroad Company. However, the roads were never built, but it did awaken the people to the importance of railroads to assist in the development of the country.
    At this time there were between fifty and sixty unmarried men living alone within six or seven miles of Hanover, and who, in case of illness or other misfortune, might suffer greatly before anyone would learn of it or go to their relief. For the purpose of protecting these, the German society, under the name and style of the Hanover Deutsche Maennerverein was established, with the design, also, of educating its members. In 1871, a fine brick hall (picture on another page) for their accommodation was erected, 60 x 90 feet in dimensions, having in it convenient reading rooms and all the equipment usually found in a club house. Judge Kalhoefer was the first man elected Secretary, which office he held three or four years, and then was made president. The Society looked after its sick members and superintended their education. In this good work, the Judge was foremost, and it was largely through his instrumentality that it survived.
    In politics, the Judge was always a staunch Republican. He voted for Lincoln and Grant, and all the Republican presidents.
(Taken from the Portrait and Biographical Album)

Henry Marquard
   Henry Marquard traced his ancestry to the noted French family called in France "Marquette", .Henry Marquard was born in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg, Germany, April, 1836. His father was a very wealthy man, intelligent and a prominent landowner in Mecklenburg. The children were educated by private tutors, but Henry completed his education in Heidleburg University. Although of French origin, the de Marquards embraced the doctrines of the Protestant Church, and fled to Prussia when the Huguenots were driven out of France.
    In 1860, Mr. Marquard emigrated to America and located in Wisconsin with his young wife, Johanna, until 1870, then coming to Washington County, Kansas, to put up the first hotel in Hanover, naming it the "Hanover House". In building this hotel, Mr. Marquard hauled all his lumber from Waterville. He prospered in the hotel business, and invested a portion of his wealth in a tract of land. It was well stocked with horses, cattle and swine, and had many fruit trees. Mr. Marquard served as president of the city council and as alderman several terms. He was first president of the German Society (Deutchermannerverein), which was organized to look after men living by themselves during the pioneer settlement. He also served as treasurer for this society. As a voting citizen, he identified himself with the Republican party. He served as Deputy Sheriff from 1870 until 1876. He was very interested in the growth of Hanover and the township, and assisted in building different churches in the township, giving two lots to the Catholic Society, although not a member. He attended the Lutheran Church. Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Marquard.
(Taken from the Portrait and Biographical Album)

Hon. Louis Moll, M.D.
   Hon. Louis Moll, M.D., a practicing physician and surgeon at Hanover, was also engaged in the drug business, and bears the honor of being one of the first settlers of this place, having established himself here in the spring of 1871, prior to the advent of the railroad. The now flourishing town of Hanover was then a hamlet of a half dozen houses, giving little indication of its future importance. Any ordinary man would have retired, discouraged, from the field, as the prospect for building a lucrative business seemed remote. Dr. Moll, however, was no ordinary man, and having come to stay, arranged his stock of medicines and prepared for business. Dr. Moll was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, January 10,1836. He did not take an active part in politics, but supported the Democratic party.
    He was elected one of the early Mayors of Hanover, serving acceptably to the city and with great credit to himself.
(Taken from the Portrait and Biographical Album)

Hon. Thomas Murphy
   Hon. Thomas Murphy, Mayor of the city of Hanover, 1889, represented his ward as alderman in the City Council for eight years prior to his election as Mayor. He came to Kansas in 1879, locating at once in Hanover, and engaged in the hotel business, namely the "Cottage Hill", for six years.
    Mr. Murphy was born in County Kilkenny, Ireland, and was a prominent member of St. John's Catholic church. He materially assisted in the erection of the church edifice, and the other buildings belonging to the parish, namely, the Sisters House, the Priest's dwelling, and the school house. He was a member of the city council at the time of improving the streets, putting up the town hall, and effecting other improvements. His career was that of an honest man, and a good citizen.

Diedrich Michelson
   Diedrich Michelson was well known to the residents of Hanover and vicinity as one of its oldest settlers and leading business men. He was established in the furniture business, and also operated as an undertaker. He was born in New York City, and was the son of Diedrich Michelson, Sr., a native of Germany.
    Mr. Michelson was a carpenter when first coming to Hanover when it was still a village. He put up a fine stone building, 25 x 62 feet, and not long afterward was obliged to build another for the accommodation of his rapidly increasing business. He was instructed in the Lutheran faith and gave much time in the erection of the church edifice in Hanover. He also operated as contractor for the other church buildings and the city hall, and many other prominent buildings in town.
    Although no office seeker, Mr. Michelson served as councilman for three years and occupied other positions of trust and responsibility.
(Taken from the Portrait and Biographical Album)

Ernest William Thiele
   Ernest William Thiele was a member of the firm of E. W. Thiele and Bros., and with his partner dealt extensively in lumber, sash, doors, blinds and other materials usually sold in a lumber yard. They had their office on Washington Street, convenient to the tracks of Burlington, Missouri and Union Pacific Railroads and received orders throughout Washington and the counties adjoining.
    Mr. Thiele was a native of St. Louis, Missouri, born February 2, 1859, and lived there until a young man of twenty years. He acquired a practical education and commenced his business career as a clerk in a store. He also engaged for a time at different kinds of work, then learned the carpenter trade, coming to Washington County, Kansas, in 1879, and followed the trade for four years, after which he engaged as clerk and general helper in a lumber yard for another four years. In 1887, with his brother, George H., purchased the business of which he was chiefly manager.
    Although uniformly voting the straight Republican ticket, he meddles very little with politics. He was a member of the M. W. of A. and the A. O. U. W.
    On the 3rd of October, 1884, Mr. Thiele was married to Miss Ida Miller, and they were the parents of two bright children, Lottie and William.
(Taken from the Portrait and Biographical Album)

Charles Weber
   Charles Weber, Justice of the Peace at Hanover, Washington County, also an ice dealer and engaged in agricultural pursuits, owns and operates a farm two miles east of the city, but makes his home in the latter. He is a native of Illinois, having been born in Napervill, Cook County, September 6,1855. Two years later his parents came to Kansas, settling in the infant town of Leavenworth. After coming west, they remained residents of Leavenworth for many years, but later removed to Hanover. The subject of this sketch received a practical education in the common schools of Leavenworth, and worked with his father until 1874. Then coming to Hanover, thereafter, for two years, was in the employ of a railroad company. At the expiration of this time, he established his butcher shop and was soon joined by his father, who assisted him in the business. He was recognized as an intelligent member of the community, and at the time of grading the railroad, was elected City Marshall. For six years, he served as Constable. He established the first ice business in Hanover, and still has the monoply, being the only ice dealer in the place. Mr. Weber was elected Justice of the Peace in 1888. He was four years the Deputy Sheriff of Washington County. He affiliates with the Democratic party, and was for a long period of time, the Chief of the Fire Department. A man so industrious can scarcely be indifferent to the labor question, and Mr. Weber is accordingly prominently identified with the A.O.U.W.
(Taken from the Portrait and Biographical Album)

Wendelin Wendel
   Wendelin Wendel, dealer in dry-goods and groceries at Hanover, came to Washington County, this state, in 1869, and was one of the earliest settlers, being one of the three now living in Hanover. The other two are August Jaedicke and Judge Wilhelm Kalhoefer.
    He became quite prominent in the affairs of the infant town, serving as a member of the council two terms, and in 1884, was again elected Township Treasurer, serving until 1888, and from the organization of the fire department, he was its Treasurer and principle head. He was one of the leaders in the movement to organize the German Society (Deutscher-Maennerverein), and assisted in building the hall for the accomodation of its members. He assisted in organizing the German Catholic Church, being one of its first members, and one of its most liberal supporters. Mr. Wendel was born in the Province of Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, March 9, 1828, and emigrated to America in 1851. The town of Hanover was brought into existence by men of intelligence and enterprise, among whom Mr. Wendel occupies no secondary position.
(Taken from the Portrait and Biographical Album)

John Buenting
   John Buenting was born in the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, Germany, and lived there until he was twenty-one years of age, but being of an ambitious nature, he determined to seek his fortune on the other side of the Atlantic. He settled in Indiana for a time, then moving Westward across Mississippi, Missouri, and finally, to Kansas. Hanover was but a hamlet of seven houses when he arrived. Two years later he erected a strong frame house, and at that time was the most solid in the town. Mr. Buenting first engaged in the lumber business, then selling out, began buying grain, and was one of the early dealers in this commodity, patronizing the St. Joseph and Grand Island Railroad. He then became interested in real estate. He dealt in farm, city and suburban property, and became known far and wide. He was a Republican and served as Justice of Peace for a period of eight years, and also has officiated as City Clerk and Police Judge.
(Taken from the Portrait and Biographical Album)

DEDICATION

To those Pioneers who dared to dream of the city Hanover might become, and the farsightedness and fortitude to make their dream come true, we dedicate this book with the hope that you, their descendents, will find it a true and accurate account of your forefathers' endeavors. May Hanover's next one hundred years be as fruitful as the century just completed.

The Centennial Book Committee
    Loretta Roever
    Charles T. Schwartz
    John Merk
    Max Melchers
    Vida Bronson

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    We wish to thank all those who contributed to the store of facts which enabled us to compile this book. For the use of the files of the Hanover News, the Hanover Independent and the Hanover Herald, we are most grateful. To those citizens who so willingly supplied us with family records, pictures and other data, our sincere thanks. We acknowledge, also, the use of the Portrait and Biographical Album of Riley, Clay and Washington Counties, published in 1890, and the property of the Hanover Public Library.

EARLY BUSINESSES OF HANOVER

SCHWARTZ AND TENSPOLE
   The late William J. Schwartz became a partner in the store known as Schwartz and Tenspole in Hanover in 1883, and two years later in 1885, he bought his partner's interest, and the store has since carried the name of Schwartz Shopping Center to the present day.
    From tubs of butter and eggs in a barrel of sawdust to modern refrigeration is part of the story attending the history of an 86 year old store. In the early days, their trade was mostly with the early settlers. These settlers usually had nothing when they arrived here, and it was by the help of such pioneer merchants as William Schwartz that they were able to get their start, and make homes for themselves.
    Many times in the early days it was necessary for the store to furnish food and clothing for settlers on credit until such time that they could raise a crop. Much of the stores merchandise was exchanged for such items as butter, eggs, etc.
    When William Schwartz, father of Charles T. Schwartz, retired from active management of the store on June 1st, 1924, Charles T. Schwartz became manager, and in 1926, bought the store from his father, continuing the ownership of the business until January 1, 1964. Charles T. Schwartz worked in the store after taking a business course, from 1915 until 1926, when he became owner. After taking over the store, Charles Schwartz added a great deal to the business.
    He became associated with the I.G.A. Grocery system, and in 1947, built the present large food department addition to the store building. With the completion of this new addition, Steve Schroeder became manager of the food department. On January 1, 1964, Charles T. Schwartz sold the Stock and fixtures to his son, Charles H. Schwartz and Steve Schroeder, and they are continuing the business at the present time.
    The store has eight full time employees. Nationally known lines of merchandise are to be found in the dry goods, clothing and shoe departments of the store and the business is one of the oldest and largest family owned stores in the area.
    Mr. Schwartz has been active in the Chamber of Commerce, served four years as City Councilman and eighteen years as a Director on the Hanover Hospital Board.

MUELLER SAND & GRAVEL COMPANY
   This company was started in the year 1948 by two well known young brothers from this community, Emil H. and Chas. J. Mueller. Their ability and foresight prompted them to embark on a venture which they considered would result in a promising enterprise.
    About this time, only a few years after the end of World War II, the entire country was still faced with the gigantic problem of 'shortage', including housing, remodeling, commercial buildings, city streets, county roads, bridges and highways. The demand far exceeded the available supply, and so the Mueller Bros. grasped the opportunity of becoming a part of this so-called reconstruction period by supplying some of the finest grade of sand and gravel to be found anywhere.
    In 1961, they began to process Ready-Mix concrete, and acquired a fleet of trucks operating from two plants located at Hanover and Washington, Kansas. Five years later, in 1966, another plant was opened at Linn, Kansas. All these plants are furnishing State approved aggregate and Ready-Mix concrete for various types of construction work throughout a wide area. The aggregate is shipped via trucks and by the Union Pacific and C.B. & Q. railroads.
    In 1967, another segment was added to this expanding firm. They formed a construction crew to build, primarily, concrete bunker silos and other types of concrete construction, including floors, platforms, foundations, sidewalks, driveways, etc.
    This company has contributed immeasurably to the progress and economy of this community for the past 20 odd years, having employed approximately 10 to 15 people continuously throughout this period.

BRUNA IMPLEMENT & MANUFACTURING CO.
   One of Hanover's business establishments which has played a prominent part in sustaining the economy in this trade area during the past twenty-two years is the Bruna Implement Co.
    In the fall of 1947, two brothers, Floyd and Butch Bruna, with a minimum of available capital, started a business in the form of a welding and machine shop in Hanover. In connection with this venture, they also became dealers in J. I. Case farm equipment.
    Three years later, in 1950, the prospects for expansion looked favorable, so the two boys, along with their brother, George, who now had joined the partnership, purchased the International Harvester agency from Ed Gantenbien.
    In April of 1958, they incorporated the Hanover Manufacturing Co., occupying the large garage building located at the southeast corner of the City Square and originally built by the Poell Brothers, who had the first Ford Agency in Hanover.
    Mostly, playground equipment was manufactured, including: Merry-Go-Rounds, Teeter-Totters, Swinging Gates, Picnic Tables and Benches, and Park Grills. Distribution of this equipment was made to all sections of the State of Kansas, and to many areas within the bordering States.
    In the spring of 1959, Bruna Bros. purchased a tract of land on the east edge of town adjoining the City Limits. Subsequently, this plot was annexed to the City, and is now known as Brunas Addition to the City of Hanover.
    A Behlen Steel Storage building, with a 100,000 bushel grain capacity, was erected on this site. The building, along with a surrounding parcel of land, was sold to the Hanover Housing Authority in 1968, for the purpose of developing an 18-unit, low-rent housing complex, construction of which is now in progress.
    In 1960, the Company began to manufacture hydraulic hoists for farm wagons, and in 1963, they added another line -- truck hoists.
    Then, in the spring of 1964, they opened an International Harvester store and repair shop in Marysville, Kansas. Four years later, in 1968, they purchased some acreage about a mile east of that city, along Highway 36, and constructed a new tile and concrete building measuring 60 feet by 150 feet, where they can now adequately handle the parts, do repair work and display the various types of equipment now in demand by the progressive and discriminate farmers and operators of today.
    While the business was operated in Hanover alone, their employees numbered about 9. The payroll has been increased to 11 or 12 since both locations are now in operation.
    The foregoing account is a fine example of what can be accomplished by a few ambitious, energetic young men who have, by their hard work and dedication to service, established themselves as an important asset to the life-line and growth of a small town.
    We are happy that the Bruna Brothers chose to make Hanover their home some twenty years ago, and wish them every success in the years ahead.

SEEBERGER'S PRODUCE
   One of our lifetime residents, Max H. Seeberger, at the age of 17, in the year 1909, decided to go into business for himself. He rented a small frame building from Wm. J. Schwartz, and located on the corner directly south across the street from Schwartz' Store, where he opened a Cream Station, buying for the Concordia Creamery Co. For several months the station was open for business only two days a week.
    Later, as the patronage and trade area became more fully developed, he began buying eggs in 1920 and poultry in 1926. In 1930, he built a new and larger brick building, which still stands on a lot directly west of where the original business was established, and added a line of poultry remedies, feeds, block salt and flour. He recalls some of the prices in those days, such as bran selling for 55˘ per sack, shorts 65˘ and Fairbury flour for 85˘. After World Wars I and II, he was paying 85˘ for butterfat and 28˘ per pound for heavy hens. He can name dozens of large companies and independent buyers with whom he was associated over the past 60 years.
    In 1958, Mr. Seeberger went into semi-retirement, when the operation of the station was turned, over to Sylvester Zumbahlen, who is presently conducting the business. He did, however, continue to cull chicken flocks and buy poultry until 1968, when he finally decided to quit working and take things a bit easier.

THE BARBER SHOP
   One business establishment that has been serving the people of Hanover and the surrounding community for a number of years, and is currently operating, is the Uptown Barber Shop.
    The shop building, located at the corner of Washington and Hanover Streets, was moved from downtown in 1910, and was then enlarged by Henry M. Greiveldinger, father of the present owner and operator 'Pinky' Greiveldinger. Henry worked at his profession in a very systematic and meticulous manner for 35 years. For a short time, from December 1944, until March 1945, he was forced to close the shop due to failing health, and he passed away on March 30, 1945.
    Later that year, 'Pinky', upon his discharge from military service, and having learned the trade under the tutorship of his late father, decided to reopen the shop and continue in his father's footsteps by offering the same caliber of professional service to the public which so many patrons had received and appreciated over the years.
    About three years ago a local enterprising young man, Dennis Allerheiligan, just fresh out of Barber College, was employed in order that the Uptown Barber Shop would be able to provide even better service to its customers.
    Barber shops, as many as three or four at one time, have been a part of Hanover's business scene during this span of years, but not all could boast of a record such as: 'doing business at the same old stand for 59 years'.

THE HANOVER NEWS
   Robert L. Sand, present owner and publisher of The Hanover News, is the tenth publisher of the paper which has existed since the year 1877. E. N. Emmons, the first publisher, called it the Washington County Sun. When edited by J. M. Hood, it was called the Hanover Democrat, a name that remained with it until B. H. Dieker bought out the Hanover Herald from Dillie O. Munger, combined the two papers and gave it the name, The Hanover News. It was under this name that Robert L. and Dora Ann Dand purchased it from Leo Dieker, taking possession August 1, 1967.

DINGMAN'S DRUG STORE
   Dingman's Drug Store was started in 1894 by John Dingman and Dan Spence, in a building two doors west of their present building. Spence died in 1924, and Dingman continued to operate the store until l912,when he was joined by his brother, Ben Dingman. The store was then moved to its present location. On the death of Ben Dingman in 1954, Elmer Turk acquired the business, which he continues to operate.

LEROY HOTEL
   Leroy Hotel, first known as the Avenue Hotel. Margaret O'Brien Thompson and James Thompson, bought land from Governor St. John in 1879. They had it surveyed, plotted and annexed, and was known as Thompson's first addition to Hanover. They, in turn, sold it to E. M. Morrill in 1879, who then sold it to Thomas and Mary Murphy in 1880, when the Murphy's built the Avenue Hotel. It changed owners many times until 1918, when Mr. and Mrs. Otto Schroeder bought it and changed the name to the LeRoy Hotel, which was known sometimes as the Railroad Hotel because all the railroad men stayed there. They rented rooms only. Mr. Schroeder, being a barber by trade, installed a Barber Shop, which he operated until 1948, when a stroke forced him to quit. His son, Mr. and Mrs. LeRoy Schroeder, took over the establishment in June, 1950. LeRoy had installed a retail liquor store in November, 1949, in the former barber shop. Also, the Schroeders had built and furnished two three-room apartments in the hotel. This hotel has been in the hands of two generations for 51 years.

BILL'S MOBIL STATION
   Bill's Mobil Station is owned and operated by Mr. Bill Laue. He first leased the station in 1953, becoming the owner in 1961. Along with the service station, Bill has a gas tank wagon, water hauling business and Anhy-Amm. Fertilizer.

SNACK SHOP
   Snack Shop is operated by Mr. and Mrs. Sam Shaffer. They bought the Snack Shop from Joe Hoover in 1953, when it was located in the building owned by Mrs. Barbara Teply and Mrs. Francis Triska. In 1956, they moved the shop to a larger building owned at that time by Wilfred Poell, and where they continue to do business.

PONY EXPRESS TRUCK STOP
   Pony Express Truck Stop, located on the Junction of Highways 36 and 15E, was built in the fall of 1963 and spring of '64 by Mr. LeRoy Barnes and Mr. Norman Lull. They opened for business in May of that year. They also manage a cafe in connection with the service station.

SEDLACEK'S
   Sedlacek's has been a part of the Hanover business community since 1929, when John J. Sedlacek, Sr. moved his Hardware and Furniture store to Hanover from Bremen.
    The store, started in Bremen in 1890, by Joseph A. Sedlacek, immigrant son of Czechoslovakian parents, and grandfather of the present owners, was burned to the ground in 1908. It was rebuilt on the same foundation, and continued to prosper. John J. Sedlacek joined his father in business in 1908, and upon the death of Joseph A. Sedlacek, assumed full control.
    He moved the store to Hanover when it outgrew the Bremen facilities. In 1949, the third generation of Sedlacek's joined the firm, and, when their father retired in 1956, assumed full control. They have since added appliances, TV and service.

HOFFMAN'S MOTOR CO.
   Carl E. Hoffman opened a car repair shop here in 1922, but during World War II, he closed the shop and went into defense work. After the war, he returned home and reopened his shop, soon adding the Chevrolet agency, and changing the name of his flourishing business to Hoffman's Chevrolet Agency. In 1963, Mr. Hoffman decided to relinquish the Chevrolet agency, so he changed the name to Hoffman's Motor Co.

NOVEL WOODCRAFT
   Modern Woodcraft began as a partnership between Albert W. Kruse and Cecil A. Jones on April 16, 1956. The business consisted of manufacturing cabinets, gifts and novelties. Partnership was dissolved October 19,1957, and business was continued by Mr. Kruse under the name of Novel Woodcraft in the former Solt building which was located just east of the present postoffice site. At this time, Mr. Kruse included other activities such as taxidermy, furniture repair and upholstery, and all phases of painting, including signs. On May 16, 1961, Mr. Kruse purchased the property on lower North street, which has been the site of business ever since.

ELLIS ELECTRIC
   This business was started in 1920, by Will. H. Ellis, known and recognized in those days as 'Ellis -- The Telephone Man', and later as 'Ellis -- The Radio Man'.
    During World War I, Mr. Ellis was in the Army Signal Corps, where he acquired a comprehensive knowledge and invaluable experience in the field of electricity and all its ramifications. Being very interested and adept in this line of work, he spent much time in studying, planning and experimenting with new ideas concerning the laws of electricity and its possible application to various uses.
    By 1924 or 1925, he had manufactured, mainly by hand, all the equipment required to operate a radio broadcasting station. After obtaining an operator permit from the Signal Corps, he opened a Standard Broadcast Station in a building then occupied by O. D. Welch, Sr., our local Photographer. Broadcasts were programmed every Sunday afternoon for a period of about eight months. As many as five people were stationed at telephones to receive requests for numbers the public wished to hear broadcast over the radio. The system was operated by dry cell radio batteries, and the microphones and other technical equipment were built by Mr. Ellis. The power and controls were located in the Ellis home about a half block from the broadcasting station.
    In the years that followed, Mr. Ellis served, not only our immediate area, but many of our neighboring towns and communities, with his keen knowledge and ability involving the problems connected with electricity, radio and mechanics, generally. At this time, he still maintains a shop in his present home, and still repairs all types of electrical appliances, radios and televisions.

BUSINESSES OF TODAY

BOHNING'S GARAGE
   Frank Bohning started car repair service in 1919, in the building where the Hanover Implement Company now has their shop. After several years there, he moved, in 1924, to the present location of the garage, known then as the Tillie McCarthy store building. He, with Dick Juelfs, formed the Hanover Motor Company, Juelfs doing blacksmith work and Bohning, auto, truck and tractor repair. Juelfs moved away after a year, and Bohning continues in the garage to the present time, adding service to caterpillar tractors, cranes and other heavy equipment.
    A number of local boys were apprenticed in the shop, learning the mechanic trade, among them the Parks boys, Paul Scheetz, Junior Voss, Tom Ellis, Kenneth Hewitt, Frank Jr. and Jay Bohning.
    The Bohning Sawmill, which had been portable, and had been set up around at a number of places in the community, was added permanently to the garage equipment in 1940. Thousands of feet of native lumber have been sawed there since that time. Jueneman Brothers are present lessees and operators of the sawmill.

ZUMBAHLEM LIQUOR STORE
   Zumbahlen Liquor Store is owned by Clarence Zumbahlem. It was built in 1949, by Mr. Alfred Bonte when package liquor became legal in Kansas, and was operated by Mr. Bonte until his death in 1960. Mr. Zumbahlem purchased it in 1961.

P AND P SUPER MARKET
   P and P Super Market is owned and operated by Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert Poell, in partnership with Mr. and Mrs. Lavern Poppe, Odell, Nebraska. Mr. Poell opened the store for business in July, 1967, and due to a fire, December 4, 1968, was closed temporarily until January 20, 1969.

GREIVELDINGER PLUMBING & HEATING SHOP
   Greiveldinger Plumbing and Heating Shop is owned by Mr. Henry Greiveldinger who purchased the plumbing business from Vernon Koehler in 1953.

HANOVER COOPERATIVE OIL COMP ANY
   In March, 1946, a movement came to a close to disband the county wide Farmers Oil and Supply Company and form a new association locally wherever enough interest was shown. In April, a meeting was called in Hanover to form a new association. Hanover Cooperative Oil Co., to be the name of the new association. The first board of directors were elected, and they are as follows: Henry Imhoff, president; H. H. Neumann, secretary; Clem Koppes, Martin Rettig, Martin Lohse and Art Roever as board members. The new Hanover Cooperative Oil Co. started with 42 members. Through the years, the membership has grown to over 500. In 1967, the membership voted to build a new station as soon as the Board of Directors found a suitable site. Now in 1969, this dream is coming true, and a new, modern three-bay service is in the Process of being built. The present Board of Directors are -- Otto Neuman, president; Wm. O, M. Holle, secretary; Charles Mueller, Melvin Lohse, and Aaron Wiese as board members.

O. K. SERVICE STATION
   O. K. Service Station, located across the street from the Hanover Cooperative Association, is owned by Mr. Steve Doebele. Mr. Doebele first leased his station in 1938 from Mr. John Mueller, purchasing it in 1957. He started in the propane business in 1955, and the fertilizer business in 1958. Steve, with his sons, Loren and Dennis, and Ed Hynek, operate, along with his business, a gas tank wagon and a water hauling truck.

MAMIE'S CERAMICS
   In the spring of 1962, Mrs. Mamie Jones opened a ceramic shop in the old Munger building, located west across the street from the city hall. Prior to the opening, Mrs. Jones had taken a six weeks course in Beatrice, Nebraska, to learn the basics of ceramics. Mrs. Jones started, mainly, as a hobby, but as public interest grew, she was forced to move into a larger building directly across from her home in 1965. She uses much Washington County clay gathered and perfected by F. O. Imhoff, farmer, living west of Hanover. Mrs. Jones has two electric kilns, one large and one medium in operation. She also carries a large stock of greenware, Washington County slip or Ceramic slip, and has 200 molds to work with. She takes special orders of almost any kind, and has many gifts for sale.

HANOVER ELECTRIC
   Hanover Electric is owned and operated by Mr. and Mrs. Howard Schlabach. Howard started in business in Hanover, March 21, 1949, in partnership with Marlon Roth. Toward the end of 1949, Howard bought Mr. Roth out, and continued to operate the shop until he was drafted into the Army in April, 1951. He was discharged in 1953, and again started his shop in the filling station building located across the street from the bank. In 1956, he purchased the Ring Farm Service building and moved to the new location, where he still continues to do contract wiring, plumbing and heating, air conditioning work and servicing of all types of appliances. He also sells the Zenith and Kelvinator appliances. In December, 1960, he started the Feed and Seed business in the building adjoining him on the east. He owns and operates a Mobile feed grinder, and also has a cleaning and fanning mill for home grown seeds. This business is known as HOWARDS FEED AND SEED.

HANOVER LOCKER PLANT
   Hanover Locker Plant first came into existence in the fall of 1944, when Charles Schwartz and Wes Nespor purchased the stone building owned by Mrs. Louisa Siefert. Mr. and Mrs. D. W. Cope, of Holton, Kansas, installed the refrigeration and rented the plant to Mr. and Mrs. Wayne Wilson. The Wilsons ran it for several years, and then it was leased to Mr. and Mrs. Roy Keitel. Mrs. Helen Cope was in charge of the plant for a time after the Keitels left until Mr. and Mrs. Henry Roever took over in January, 1958. In 1961, the Roevers bought the plant from Mrs. Cope, and since that time have installed new modern refrigeration and a new, modern outdoor smokehouse. High School boys, Eugene Geisher and Allan Kruse have apprenticed there through the winter for on the job training to learn the butchering and meat processing business through the Hanover high school program.

THE HANOVER INSURANCE AGENCY
   Cecil A. Jones, Otto Neumann and Alfred Wieden formed a partnership in the insurance business on April 1, 1966, and called it the Hanover Insurance Agency. Mr. Jones started in the insurance business during the year of 1941, and ran it by himself until 1965, when he employed Mr. Wieden to help in the office. On April 1, 1966, Mr. Jones sold part of his insurance business to Otto Neumann, who had been in the insurance business for himself since 1951. Mr. Jones then sold some of his insurance business to Alfred Wieden. At this time, the partnership agreement was drawn up and called it the Hanover Insurance Agency.

JERRY'S GARAGE
   Jerry's Garage, located one-half block south of Main street. This garage was built and is run by Jerry Buesig. Jerry started the mechanic work in this location in January of 1964, where he has been kept busy overhauling cars, tractors, lawn mowers, and most repairable equipment. His original building began as a 30 by 40 foot aluminum building and last spring, 1968, he added an additional 20 by 30 foot shop to supply room for school bus repair. Jerry works alone in his garage except for part-time help during the rushed summer season when he employs help from the Hanover area.

THE FIVE-MINUTE CAR WASH
   The Five-Minute Car Wash, located on main on Main street was built by Jerry and Ernest Buesig, and is operated by both. The building was put into operation in April of 1968.

LLOYD'S SALVAGE
   Lloyd's Salvage is owned and operated by Lloyd Wetter and located on the southeast edge of Hanover. Mr. Wetter purchased the salvage yards from Oscar Gerleve in 1961. Mr. Gerleve had started the salvage business in 1954.

TIM'S CAFÉ
   Tim's Cafe is leased and operated by Mr. and Mrs. Tom Morgan. This building and business place has a very interesting history. The building itself was first located where the Burlington tracks are now, and when the Burlington railroad came through, it was moved to its present location in the year 1882. In the year 1899, Oscar Richie and George Gerardy, Sr., operated a beer tavern, which was open twenty-four hours a day. It was called Marble Hall. In 1905, due to prohibition, it was sold to Henry Oswald, who turned it into a soft drink parlor, later selling it to Amos Lee. In 1912, Mr. Lee sold the cafe and building to Gust Kuck, who operated it for eighteen and a half years, call- ing it the City Lunch Room. In 1930, it again changed hands, with Tom and Art Doebele being the new owners. However, two years later the brothers dissolved partnership, and Art became the owner. In the years following, the cafe changed owners many times, namely: Royal Oswald, Leonard Doebele, Curt Bell, Bush Scheetz, LeRoy Schroeder, Don Ewald, Delmar Schmidt and Kermit Rickenberg being the present owner, but leasing it to Tom Morgan, due to his call to the National Guard.

JUENEMAN CONSTRUCTION
   Wilbur Jueneman started in the construction business in the fall of 1951. In 1960, he was joined by his brother, Orville, until 1967, when Orville branched out for himself.

THOLL'S AUTO ELECTRIC & SUPPLY
   Lloyd Tholl started in the garage business in 1943, in the same building in which he is now located. In April, 1959, he closed shop and went to work for Carl A. Anderson Corporation, Omaha, Nebraska, returning to Hanover in January, 1963, to reopen his own shop, which he still continues to operate.

HANOVERLAUNDRAMAT
   Mr. and Mrs. E. D. Rettig operate the Hanover Laundramat, which they purchased from Mr. and Mrs. Henry Roever. Mr. and Mrs. Henry Roever opened the first coin operated laundramat in Hanover in May, 1960. They had three washing machines and one small dryer. On March 26, 1964, Mr. and Mrs. Rettig purchased the laundramat and expanded it to the present operation of eight washing machines, two large dryers, one soap machine and a change machine.

HANOVER LUMBER COMPANY
   The lumber yard in Hanover was purchased on February 27, 1928, by the Burgner-Bowman-Matthews Lumber Co. The property had been a lumber yard for many years prior to this date. On February 12, 1969, the business was purchased from Burgner-Bowman-Matthews by Walter and Verla Harrison, who operate the yard as the Hanover Lumber. Co.

N AND O CERAMIC AND GIFT SHOP
   N and O Ceramic and Gift Shop is operated by Mrs. Orvel Roever in partnership with Mrs. Nola Kramer, Marysville, Kansas. They had their grand opening November 24, 1968. Lessons are given on Wednesday and Thursday evenings. They also have many beautiful ceramics for sale.

LINDNER'S GARAGE
   George Lindner started this business in 1947. Primarily, he bought and sold used cars, and in connection therewith, he operated a car and tractor repair service. In both ventures, he was fortunate in being able to enjoy a rewarding business for fourteen years, when in 1961 he suffered a stroke and became incapacitated. After spending some time in the hospital and convalescing at home, he returned to work. At present, he is still conducting the 'used car sales' end of the business, and only doing minor mechanical repair jobs.

CAP-ANNA MOTEL
   A two-acre tract of land was purchased from Leo Crimmins in 1954, by Mr. and Mrs. Cap Nemitz, and construction work was started on a 10-unit motel. The building is of Haydite Block, with an outside stucco finish. It sets on a slight angle and faces northeast at the Junction ofHighway 15-E and Highway 36 south of Hanover. It was known as the Cap-Anna Motel.
    In September, 1956, the Nemitz' held open house for the public to visit and inspect the motel: The motel had been opened two months earlier for business.
    Due to the death of Mrs. Nemitz in October, 1968, the motel was sold to Mr. and Mrs. Warren Watson, Beatrice, Nebraska, and now is known under the name of the Pony Express Motel.

COMMUNITY STATE BANK

BYRNES INSURANCE AGENCY

HANOVER CLEANERS

HANOVER COOPERATIVE ELEVATOR

HANOVER RECREATION

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